oncogene


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.
Related to oncogene: Cancer research

oncogene

 [ong´ko-jēn]
a gene found in the chromosomes of tumor cells whose activation is associated with the initial and continuing conversion of normal cells into cancer cells.

on·co·gene

(ong'kō-jēn),
1. Any of a family of genes that normally encodes proteins that are involved in cell growth or regulation (e.g., protein kinases, GTPases, nuclear proteins, growth factors) but that may foster malignant processes if mutated or activated by contact with retroviruses. Identified oncongenes include ras, originally noted in bladder tumors, and p53, a mutated version of a gene on chromosome 17 that has been shown to be involved in more than half of all human cancers. Oncogenes can work in concert to produce cancer, and their action may be exacerbated by retroviruses, jumping genes, or inherited genetic mutations.
See also: tumor suppressor gene, antioncogene.
2. A gene found in certain DNA tumor viruses. It is required for viral replication.
Synonym(s): transforming gene
[onco- + gene]

Genes of mutations that can permit or induce uncontrolled cellular proliferation and malignant change are of two types: protooncogenes and tumor suppressor genes (antioncogenes). Protooncogenes encode proteins that stimulate DNA synthesis and cell division, including peptide growth factors and their cellular membrane receptors; second-messenger cascade proteins, which transmit information from cell membrane to nucleus; and nuclear transcription factors, which control gene expression by binding to DNA. Conversion of a protooncogene to an oncogene by amplification, translocation, or point mutation can lead to unrestrained cellular proliferation and malignant change. Only 1 copy (allele) of a protooncogene need undergo mutation to induce tumor formation. Protooncogenes are not involved in inherited cancer syndromes, with the exception of the RET protooncogene in multiple endocrine neoplasia. Tumor suppressor genes (antioncogenes), which encode proteins that normally serve to restrain cell proliferation, can be inactivated by point mutation, deletion, or loss of expression. An inherited mutation in 1 copy of a tumor suppressor gene is the basis of most familial predispositions to cancer. Malignant cellular proliferation does not occur until the remaining, functional copy of the gene is inactivated by mutation or by deletion of part or all of its chromosome. In a person born with two normal copies of a tumor suppressor gene, both must be inactivated by mutation before tumor formation occurs. BRCA1 and BRCA2, which predispose to familial early-onset breast cancer and ovarian cancer, are tumor suppressor genes.

oncogene

(ŏn′kə-jēn, ŏng′-)
n.
1. Any of various mutated genes that cause the transformation of normal cells into cancerous cells.
2. Any of various viral genes that transform host cells into cancerous cells.

on·co·gene

(on'kō-jēn)
Any of a family of genes, which under normal circumstances, code for proteins involved in cell growth or regulation (e.g., protein kinases, GTPases, nuclear proteins, growth factors) but may foster malignant processes if mutated or activated by contact with retroviruses. Oncogenes often work in concert to produce cancer, and their action may be exacerbated by retroviruses, jumping genes, or inherited genetic mutations.
See: antioncogene

oncogene

a gene causing cancer induction (ONCOGENESIS) in the host.

Oncogene

A gene that has to do with regulation of cancer growth. An abnormality can produce cancer.
Mentioned in: Breast Cancer

on·co·gene

(ong'kō-jēn)
Any of a family of genes that normally encodes proteins involved in cell growth or regulation but may foster malignant processes if mutated or activated by contact with retroviruses.
[onco- + gene]
References in periodicals archive ?
Hatanaka et al., "Oncogenic effects of evolutionarily conserved noncoding RNA ECONEXIN on gliomagenesis," Oncogene, vol.
The loss of oncogene addiction within the SCN implies a de facto reversion of LSC to the normal HSC phenotype, as long as they remain under conditions where the balance within the regulation of LSC compartment is in favour of the maintenance of stem cell potential rather than of commitment to differentiation [48].
Already, the literature is beginning to include reports where use of an oncogene panel has identified that a cancer presenting as one type (based on cell type and appearance) is discovered at a genetic level to share commonalities with another very different cancer type--for which a specific drug is available.
Mutation of p53 allows tumours Gl-S boundary, propagate genetic alterations which can lead to other activated oncogenes or inactivated tumor suppressor genes.
pylori-induced proliferation, activation of NADPH oxidase, ROS production, and oncogene expression were highest at bacterium/cell ratio of 50 : 1 as compared to those at 20: 1 and 10: 1 (Figures 1(b), 2(a), 2(b), 2(d), and 2(f)).
Given that the state of HER2 oncogene amplification has important clinical and therapeutic implications for a condition as prevalent as breast cancer, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the status of HER2 oncogene amplification by IHC and FISH in samples from Colombian patients.
Geschwind, "K-ras oncogene mutation as a prognostic marker in non-small cell lung cancer: a combined analysis of 881 cases," Carcinogenesis, vol.
(10) In human neoplastic cervical epithelial cells, HPV 16 E5, E6 and E7 oncogenes have been shown to induce the inflammatory cyclo-oxygenase (COX)-prostaglandin axis, by elevating expression of the immediate early oncogene COX-2.
is a wholly owned US subsidiary of WILEX AG and manufactures, markets and sells diagnostic tests in oncology under the brand name Oncogene Science[R].
The oncogene BRAF V600E is associated with a high risk of recurrence and less differentiated papillary thyroid carcinoma due to the impairment of Na+/I- targeting to the membrane.
In addition, the proto oncogene Myc is known for its ability to mediate tumour suppressive responses including apoptosis.
Most approaches to produce human iPS cells use retroviruses to activate and/ or express multiple key genes, including an oncogene that is associated with production of cancer cells.