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Six of the oncofetal antigens (AFP, HE4, proGRP, CEA, CA19-9, and SCC) exhibited the expected pattern of expression with high concentrations at birth followed by rapid decreases to significantly lower concentrations (Fig.
Although the status of both markers as oncofetal antigens remains controversial, given that both markers are known to be expressed in fetal and neonatal tissue, this pattern of expression is unexpected; however, in the case of CA125, it has been shown that concentrations in both maternal serum and amniotic fluid are higher in the early stages of pregnancy and tend to attenuate by birth (20).
Hepatocellular carcinomas in dogs have been separated from cholangiocarcinomas on the basis of their immunohistochemical staining patterns for oncofetal antigens in one report [24].
It has been shown that IPMT occasionally expresses oncofetal antigens. Abnormalities of oncogenes and anti-oncogenes also have been reported in IPMT.