The papers describe models of the auditory periphery, the cochlear nucleus, the superior olivary
complex, the auditory cortex, the inferior colliculus neurons, sensorineural hearing loss, and auditory scene analysis.
The central pathological process in MSA involves neuronal cell loss and gliosis throughout the central nervous system (CNS), especially in the putamen, caudate, substantia nigra, locus coerulus, pontine nucleus, inferior olivary
nucleus purkinje cells and the intermediolateral cell columns of the thoracic spinal cord (93).
Luminance and darkness detectors in the olivary
and posterior pretectal nuclei and their relationship to the pupillary light reflex in the rat.
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) detected the presence of an old pontine vascular insult associated with a prominence and abnormal hyperintensity in the area of the right inferior olivary
nucleus (figures 1-3).
Localization of tones by horses: Use of binaural cues and the superior olivary
The superior olivary
complex was investigated by Kuwabara and Bhatnagar (1999).
Histopathologic lesions in brain of zebu with spongiform encephalopathy and cow with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, Switzerland, 2004 * Site Cow Zebu Brainstem Dorsal motor nucleus of vagus nerve (+) (++) Nucleus of spinal tract of trigeminal (++) (+++) nerve Nucleus of hypoglossal nerve (+) (++) Reticular formation (++) (++) Nucleus of solitary tract (++) (+++) Vestibular nuclei (++) (+) to (++) Olivary
nuclei (++) (++) Cerebellar cortex (-) (+) Midbrain (substantia grisea centralis) (+) to (++) (++) to (+++) Thalamus (++) (++) to (+++) Hippocampus n.
2000) found that the trigeminal ganglion innervates the ventral cochlear nucleus and the superior olivary
Red nuclear and cerebellar but no olivary
activation associated with essential tremor: a positron emission tomographic study.
Wave II originates from cochlear nucleus, Wave III from superior olivary
nucleus, Wave IV from lateral lemniscus, and Wave V from inferior colliculi in the midbrain.
Wave I is produced by the acoustic nerve activity that wave II can reflect the activity of the cochlear nucleus with a contribution from the auditory nerve, that Wave III can be referred to the generators in the superior olivary
complex and the lateral leminiscii, that the wave IV-V complex is generated in the axons and/or nuclei of the lateral leminiscii and probably also from inferior colliculi.