oligodendrocyte


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia, Wikipedia.

oligodendroglia

 [ol″ĭ-go-den-drog´le-ah]
1. the non-neural cells of ectodermal origin forming part of the adventitial structure of the central nervous system.
2. the tissue composed of such cells.

ol·i·go·den·dro·cyte

(ol'i-gō-den'drō-sīt),
A cell of the oligodendroglia.

oligodendrocyte

(ŏl′ĭ-gō-dĕn′drə-sīt′, ō′lĭ-)
n.
One of the cells comprising the oligodendroglia.

ol·i·go·den·dro·cyte

(ol'i-gō-den'drō-sīt)
A cell of the oligodendroglia.
Enlarge picture
OGLIODENDROCYTE

oligodendrocyte

(ol?i-go-den'tro-sit) [? + ? + kytos, cell]
A glial cell found most commonly in axon tracts; it myelinates axons in the central nervous system just as Schwann cells myelinate axons in the peripheral nervous system. Oligodendrocytes are neuroectodermal cells that originate from different precursors in the neural tube than astrocytes; later, stem cells in the subependymal layer can continue to generate new oligodendrocytes. Mature oligodendrocytes wrap neighboring axons in myelin, and some oligodendrocytes can simultaneously wrap many axons. However, not all oligodendrocytes myelinate axons.
Synonym: oligodendroglia See: illustration

oligodendrocyte

A connective cell of the central nervous system (glial cell) that participates in the formation of the myelin sheaths of nerve cell axons.
References in periodicals archive ?
This included the distinct populations of transitioning oligodendrocyte and astrocyte progenitor cells, particularly the early pri-OPC progenitors that support the rapid growth of glioblastoma.
Oligoprogenitor cells were induced in the presence of CSF followed by differentiation to an oligodendrocyte structure.
(33) used RNA sequencing and showed that long-term in vitro treatment with 9-cis and all-trans RA increased the expression of the negative regulators of oligodendrocyte differentiation such as HES5.
Devanaboyina et al., "Myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein-specific antibodies from multiple sclerosis patients exacerbate disease in a humanized mouse model," Journal of Autoimmunity, vol.
Rasband, "Oligodendrocyte myelin glycoprotein does not influence node of ranvier structure or assembly," The Journal of Neuroscience, vol.
Fossati has developed a unique way to take human skin cells, create iPSC, convert those into oligodendrocytes and, she hopes, use the oligodendrocytes as a better model for studying myelination in MS and evaluating potential MS stem cell therapies.
The increased immunoreactivity for Tau-1 in oligodendrocytes may be an early event underlying oligodendrocyte pathology [77].
MO3.13, a human oligodendrocyte cell line, was purchased from Cellutions Biosystems Corporation (Toronto, Ontario, Canada).
The researchers found, however, that chronic stress also made stem cells in the hippocampus mature into another type of glial cell called an oligodendrocyte, which produces the myelin that sheaths nerve cells.
Rat Microglia and Oligodendrocyte Primary Cultures.
The topics include purifying and cultivating retinal ganglion cells from rodents, purifying dorsal root ganglion neurons from rats by immunopanning, purifying astrocytes from transgenic rodents by fluorescence-activated cell sorting, myelinating co-cultures of rat retinal ganglion cell re-aggregates and optic nerve oligodendrocyte precursor cells, and purifying Schwann cells from the neonatal and injured adult mouse peripheral nerve.
"This suggests there is significant oligodendrocyte death even before anything else degenerates," he explains, "which identifies a new and important player in the progression of this disease."