olfactory neuroblastoma

Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

ol·fac·to·ry neu·ro·blas·to·ma

a rare, often slowly growing malignant tumor of primitive nerve cells, usually arising in the olfactory area of the nasal cavity.


A rare malignant neuroectodermal tumour of the nasal cavity in the retrobulbar region, middle cranial fossa, near the cribriform plate. It is thought to arise from the olfactory membrane of the sinonasal tract.

Clinical findings
Bimodal age distribution, affecting those in the 2nd and 6th decades of life; presents as a unilateral nasal obstruction, epistaxis, anosmia and headache, accompanied by nonspecific symptoms similar to other intranasal lesions—i.e., congestion, rhinorrhoea.
Small round cell malignancies that occur in the sinonasal tract—e.g., sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma, lymphoma, rhabdomyosarcoma and neuroendocrine carcinomas.

5-year survival 50–60%; late recurrence is common. Hyams’ grading system is used for grading; it incorporates architecture, rosette formation, mitoses, necrosis and pleomorphism, and correlates with survival.


pertaining to the sense of smell.

olfactory bulb
the bulblike extremity of the olfactory tract on the rostral surface of the frontal lobe of each cerebral hemisphere; it is lodged against the cribriform plate through which the olfactory nerves pass.
olfactory glands
in the mucosa of the nasal olfactory region; branched tubuloalveolar glands secreting serous fluid; cleanse the mucosal surface, dissolve odor-producing substances.
olfactory hair
modified cilia projecting from olfactory cells in the mucosa of the nasal olfactory area.
olfactory mucosa
specialized olfactory cells in a region of nasal mucosa covering ethmoturbinates, turbinates and nasal septum.
olfactory nerve
the first cranial nerve made up of about 20 bundles and concerned with the sense of smell. The cell bodies are situated in the olfactory mucous membrane of the nose. Nerve fibers lead upward through openings in the cribriform plate of the ethmoid bone and connect with the cells of the olfactory bulb. From there the fibers pass inward to the cerebrum. See also Table 14.
olfactory neuroblastoma
rare neoplasm, commonest in pups and kittens, characterized by local invasion of surrounding bone.
olfactory pit
primordia of the nasal cavities commencing as pits in the olfactory placodes of the embryo. The pits deepen and finally open into the oral cavity as the choanae; the external orifices become the nostrils. Called also nasal pit.
olfactory system
includes the olfactory part of the nasal mucosa, the olfactory nerves and the olfactory bulbs of the cerebrum.
olfactory tract
a band of white nerve fibers visible on the ventral surface of the brain running caudally from the olfactory bulbs.
olfactory tractotomy
surgical removal or transection of the olfactory tracts to produce an anosmia may be performed in cats as a means of controlling spraying and inappropriate urination.
References in periodicals archive ?
Table-I: Summary of clinicopathological features of Olfactory neuroblastoma.
Olfactory neuroblastoma is an uncommon malignant neoplasm.
In this way, we were able to distinguish sinonasal NEC from olfactory neuroblastoma and sinonasal undifferentiated carcinoma; all three are neuroectodermal tumors.
1) Olfactory Neuroblastoma represents less than 5% of the all Sino-nasal Malignancies.
Olfactory neuroblastomas are graded I through IV on the basis of the degree of differentiation and the presence or absence of a neural stroma, mitotic figures, and necrosis.
The patient came again to us after 15 days of nasal polypectomy with present complaints of mass in left nasal cavity, nasal obstruction, nasal discharge, headache, inability to close both eyes and occasional nasal bleeding for which repeat surgery was done and HPE report was suggestive of olfactory neuroblastoma.
Olfactory neuroblastomas (or esthesioneuroblastomas) are most frequently staged using a system proposed by Kadish et al (6) in 1976.
The catecholamines have been demonstrated in olfactory neuroblastoma by fluorescent techniques after formaldehyde vapour or glyoxylic acid treatment.
A diagnosis of olfactory neuroblastoma was established by histopathology and confirmed by immunohistochemistry.
Ghaffar and Salahuddin cite a source stating that, currently, the gold standard for the management of olfactory neuroblastoma is:
1) Esthesioneuroblastoma, also known as olfactory neuroblastoma, (2-4) has been confused with other tumors, such as inverting papilloma or benign nasal polyps.
The cases of undifferentiated carcinoma and choroid plexus papilloma were confirmed as olfactory neuroblastomas and Astrocytoma respectively on paraffin sections.