First US report of shellfish harvesting closures due to confirmed okadaic acid
in Texas Gulf Coast oysters.
The toxins of the okadaic acid
(OA) group, such as OA and dinophysistoxins (DTXs), are considered to be responsible for diarrhea.
Simultaneously, the real-time PCR for TNF-[alpha] inhibitory activity of the studied extracts in okadaic acid
(OA) challenged A549 cells has been performed.
Unique features of the okadaic acid
activity class tumor promoters.
and dinophysistoxins) cause similar reactions when injected intraperitoneally in mice, other extraction methods were established for their differentiation, but it is also evident that some desulfo YTXs were coextracted with okadaic acid
and dinophysistoxins (Ciminiello et al.
To document that the activity measured as cpm reflected activity attributable to CaN and no other phosphatase, we added okadaic acid
to the assay buffer to inhibit PP1 and PP2A.
Nevertheless, the method has been successfully implemented at ARL by Fenwick Laboratories scientist Julie Marr and Quilliam, and is used routinely to monitor okadaic acid
in phytoplankton cultures.
Diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) such as okadaic acid
and dinophysistoxin-1, and other lipophilic toxins such as pectenotoxin-2 (PTX2) and yessotoxin were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS).
Phosphatasc inhibition by okadaic acid
results in an overall increase in protein phosphotylation and an imbalance in cell signaling that leads to toxicity.
32]P-serine-labeled 19-amino-acid peptide substrate (19mer) in the presence of okadaic acid
, a phosphatase type 1 and 2A inhibitor, as described previously by Fruman et al.
We isolated five known kawapyrones (kavapyrones) (1~5) and a new additional kawapyrone, 7,8-epoxyyangonin (6), from kawa MeOH extract and subjected them to TNF-[alpha] (tumor necrosis factor-[alpha] release assay from BALB/3T3 cells treated with okadaic acid
, a tumor promoter.
ABSTRACT This paper presents the results from an experiment, where uptake and elimination of diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DST) of the okadaic acid
(OA) and pectenotoxin (PTX) groups were compared between blue mussels (Mytilus edulis) and European oysters (Ostrea edulis).