Atrophy

(redirected from of disuse atrophy)
Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Legal, Encyclopedia.

atrophy

 [at´ro-fe]
1. decrease in size of a normally developed organ or tissue; see also wasting.
2. to undergo or cause such a decrease. adj., adj atroph´ic.
acute yellow atrophy massive hepatic necrosis.
circumscribed cerebral atrophy pick's disease.
disuse atrophy atrophy of a tissue or organ as a result of inactivity or diminished function.
gyrate atrophy of choroid and retina a rare hereditary, slowly progressive atrophy of the choroid and pigment epithelium of the retina; inherited as an autosomal recessive trait.
juvenile spinal muscular atrophy Kugelberg-Welander syndrome.
Leber's optic atrophy Leber's optic neuropathy.
lobar atrophy pick's disease.
myelopathic muscular atrophy muscular atrophy due to lesion of the spinal cord, as in spinal muscular atrophy.
olivopontocerebellar atrophy any of a group of progressive hereditary disorders involving degeneration of the cerebellar cortex, middle peduncles, ventral pontine surface, and olivary nuclei. They occur in the young to middle-aged and are characterized by ataxia, dysarthria, and tremors similar to those of parkinsonism.
peroneal atrophy (peroneal muscular atrophy) progressive neuromuscular atrophy.
progressive neuromuscular atrophy hereditary muscular atrophy beginning in the muscles supplied by the fibular (peroneal) nerves, progressing slowly to involve the muscles of the hands and arms. Called also peroneal or peroneal muscular atrophy and Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease.
senile atrophy the natural atrophy of tissues and organs occurring with advancing age.
spinal muscular atrophy progressive degeneration of the motor cells of the spinal cord, beginning usually in the small muscles of the hands, but in some cases (scapulohumeral type) in the upper arm and shoulder muscles, and progressing slowly to the leg muscles. Called also Aran-Duchenne disease, Cruveilhier's disease, and Duchenne's disease.
subacute yellow atrophy submassive necrosis of the liver associated with broad zones of necrosis, due to viral, toxic, or drug-induced hepatitis; it may have an acute course with death from liver failure occurring after several weeks, or clinical recovery may be associated with regeneration of the parenchymal cells.

at·ro·phy

(at'rō-fē),
A wasting of tissues, organs, or the entire body, as from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, or hormonal changes.
Synonym(s): atrophia
[G. atrophia, fr. a- priv. + trophē, nourishment]

atrophy

(ăt′rə-fē)
n. pl. atro·phies
1. A wasting or decrease in size of a body organ, tissue, or part owing to disease, injury, or lack of use: muscular atrophy of a person affected with paralysis.
2. A wasting away, deterioration, or diminution: intellectual atrophy.
v. atro·phied, atro·phying, atro·phies
v.tr.
To cause to wither or deteriorate; affect with atrophy.
v.intr.
To waste away; wither or deteriorate.

a·troph′ic (ā-trŏf′ĭk) adj.

atrophy

A reduction in tissue mass and cell substance, which can be physiological (normal) or pathological (abnormal).

Mechanism
Atrophy is not completely understood, but largely attributed to decreased protein production and increased protein degradation (e.g., via the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway).

atrophy

Wasting away; a ↓ in size of a cell, tissue, organ or part, due to defective or failed nutrition. See Blue atrophy, Brown atrophy, Disuse atrophy, Fat pad atrophy, Gastric atrophy, Geographic atrophy, Group atrophy, Multiple system atrophy, Pseudoatrophy of brain, Spinal muscle atrophy, White atrophy. Cf Dystrophy Gynecology A thinning of the ♀ genital mucosa due to ↓ estrogen in menopause Appearance Smooth, thin epithelium, prominent blood vessels, ↑ risk of trauma DiffDx Severe dysplasia, invasive CA Management Exogenous HRT.

at·ro·phy

(at'rŏ-fē)
A wasting of tissues, organs, or the entire body, as from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, or hormonal changes.
Synonym(s): atrophia.
[G. atrophia, fr. a- priv. + trophē, nourishment]

atrophy

Wasting and loss of substance due to cell degeneration and death. This may be a natural ageing process or it may be due to simple disuse. From the Greek atrophia , hunger or want of food.

atrophy

the reduction in size of an organ or tissue mass, often after disuse.

Atrophy

A wasting away of a tissue or organ, often because of insufficient nutrition.

atrophy 

A wasting, shrinking or degeneration of an organ or tissue due to malnutrition, poor blood circulation, loss of nerve supply, disuse, disease or hormonal changes.
choroidal atrophy A group of ocular degenerations of the choroid. These lesions have been grouped according to the area involved and the topographical pattern noted. Classical disease states include gyrate atrophy as well as choroideremia. These lesions are often inherited, demonstrating both autosomal recessive and dominant inheritance patterns. See choroideremia.
gyrate atrophy An autosomal recessive inherited disorder caused by a deficiency of the mitochondrial matrix enzyme ornithine keto-acid aminotransferase that catalyzes several amino acid pathways. The signs consist of circular degenerative patches of chorioretinal atrophy beginning near the equator during the teenage years and gradually increasing in number and enlarging to form a whole area with a scalloped border. There is a gradual loss of the visual field, axial myopia, nyctalopia and eventually central vision becomes impaired. Treatment includes pyridoxine (vitamin B6) supplement and arginine-restricted diet.
optic atrophy Degeneration of the optic nerve fibres characterized by a pallor of the optic disc which may appear greyish, yellowish or white. This condition leads to a loss of visual acuity or changes in the visual fields or both. The change in colour of the disc is due to a loss of the normal capillarity of the disc and to a deposition of fibrin or glial tissue which replaces the nerve fibres. 1. Primary or simple optic atrophy. The disc margins are well defined and usually the lamina cribrosa is unobscured. The colour is pale pink to white. Causes include compression by tumours and Leber's hereditary optic atrophy. 2. Secondary optic atrophy. The difference with the former is that in this condition there is evidence of preceding oedema or inflammation. The margins of the disc appear blurred and glial proliferation is present over the surface of the disc, thus obscuring the lamina cribrosa. The colour is yellowish to grey. Papilloedema gives rise to secondary optic atrophy. See open-angle glaucoma; Leber's hereditary optic atrophy; Foster Kennedy syndrome.

at·ro·phy

(at'rŏ-fē)
A wasting of tissues, organs, or the entire body, as from death and reabsorption of cells, diminished cellular proliferation, decreased cellular volume, pressure, ischemia, malnutrition, lessened function, or hormonal changes.
[G. atrophia, fr. a- priv. + trophē, nourishment]