flies are host specific and only rarely infect accidental hosts .
Colwell, "Larval morphology," in The Oestrid Flies: Biology, Host-parasite Relationship, Impact and Management, D.
ovis infestions in domestic carnivores might be due to peculiar sheep bot fly preferences and, in general, due to the strong relationship between oestrids and herbivores.
parasites of reindeer: the response of Cephenemyia trompe and Hypoderma tarandi to baited traps.
are widespread oestrid flies whose larvae parasitize various cervid hosts, yet attempts to pathologize their significance as well as delineate their taxonomy, dispersal potential, and distribution remain ambiguous.
Effect of temperature on pupal development and eclosion dates in the reindeer oestrids Hypoderma tarandi and Cephenemyia trompe (Diptera: Oestridae).
Caribou maximize their nutritional intake through large-scale migratory movements to areas of higher habitat quality, changes in seasonal and annual distribution in response to changes in plant phenology and availability, and rapid movements to limit harassment by the mosquito (Culex spp.) and oestrid fly (Hypoderma spp.
We divided each year into eight different seasons based on previously described caribou behavior (adapted from Russell et al., 1993): spring migration (16 April-31 May), calving (1-15 June), post-calving (16-30 June), mosquito harassment (1-15 July), mosquito and oestrid fly harassment (16 July-7 August), late summer (8 August-15 September), fall migration and rut (16 September-30 November), and winter (1 December-15 April).
Flying activity of the 2 oestrid
species increases with increasing air temperature and the number of flies present (Folstad et al.
Ophthalmomyiasis interna is invasion of the globe by larvae of any species of oestrid
flies; ophthalmomyiasis externa involves only the external ocular structures (1).
Key words: caribou, Rangifer tarandus, George River, Quebec, behaviour, insect harassment, mosquito, oestrid
, summer range, habitat selection
During the early post-calving period, grazing takes place largely undisturbed by insects, in sharp contrast to midsummer, when mosquitoes and oestrid
flies often disrupt activity patterns (Dau, 1986; Russell et al., 1993).