(5) In carotid dissection, local manifestations are pain in one side of the neck (25%), unilateral facial or orbital pain (50%), unilateral headache (65%), oculosympathetic
palsy or Horner's syndrome with miosis and ptosis (40%), cranial nerve palsy (10%) and pulsatile tinnitus (25%).
The Claude Bernard-Horner's syndrome (oculosympathetic
paresis), commonly known as Horner's syndrome (HS), is due to injury to the sympathetic chain running over the carotid vessels. It occurs when there is interruption of the oculosympathetic
pathway which supplies sympathetic innervation to the sweat glands (ipsilateral body and face), dilator muscles of the eye, and retractor muscles of the upper and lower eyelids.
Horner syndrome, or oculosympathetic
paresis, results from any interruption of the 3-neuron pathway of the oculosympathetic
tract from the brain to the eye and adjacent structures.
Horner syndrome develops in relation with blockage of the oculosympathetic
nerve pathway between the hypothalamus and the eye.
Horner's syndrome (also called oculosympathetic
paresis) typically consists of miosis, ptosis, and hemifacial anhidrosis and is a well-described neurological syndrome that is useful clinically for neurological localization.
A resulting anisocoria value of at least 0.8 mm was effective in separating normal subjects from patients with oculosympathetic
dysfunction in adults .
These conditions result from an interruption in the oculosympathetic
Raeder syndrome (paratrigeminal oculosympathetic
syndrome) is a rare clinical entity characterized by ipsilateral trigeminal sensory deficits, ptosis, and miosis, with an absence of anhidrosis secondary to interruption of the postganglionic oculosympathetic
Traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery presenting with oculosympathetic
palsy or Horner's syndrome is the triad of meiosis, ptosis, and anhidrosis that results from disruption of the sympathetic pathways between the brain and the eye.
paresis: analysis of 100 hospitalized patients.
The syndrome of painful ophthalmoplegia consists of periorbital or hemicranial pain, combined with ipsilateral ocular motor nerve palsies, oculosympathetic
paralysis, and sensory loss in the distribution of the ophthalmic and occasionally the maxillary division of the trigeminal nerve.