Stability can be achieved only if the forces derived from the periodontal and gingival tissues, the orofacial soft tissues, the occlusal forces
, and post-treatment facial growth and development are in equilibrium.
This was probably due to the use of almonds as test food; because the almonds were crushed by chewing, the occlusal force
needed for chewing decreased, and the values measured by the device on the brink of swallowing reached the threshold value or lower.
In addition, removal of tooth structure for endodontic and restorative procedures results in an increase in cuspal deflection and tooth fragility under occlusal forces
A study on the measurement of occlusal force
and masticatory efficiency in school age Japanese Children.
Acidic and abrasive processes have been documented as etiological factors,  but the role of mechanical stress from occlusal loads is the most accepted theory, ,  explaining abfraction as a consequence of tooth deflection caused by excessive occlusal forces
. During tooth deflection, tensile and compression forces are generated in the cervical region of the tooth, causing rupture of the union between hydroxyapatite crystals, leading to the formation of a crack and eventually to enamel loss.
The periodontal ligament is the connective tissue localized between the root of the tooth and the alveolar bone, and is known to aid in relieving mechanical strain such as occlusal force
and orthodontic force (Shuttleworth & Smalley, 1983; Kusters et al., 1991; Kuroiwa et al., 1992).
In particular, when implementing occlusal reconstruction using orthodontic treatment in patients with suspected occlusal trauma, it is possible to achieve appropriate disclusion in the molar region by providing correct anterior guidance, and it is important to weaken the lateral occlusal force
. In this case, the patient was suspected to have extensive, moderate chronic periodontitis  associated with occlusal trauma; therefore, a periodontal disease specialist provided adequate treatment for periodontal disease and oral management before orthodontic treatment commenced.
It is believed that gender-related bite force differences develop during the post-pubertal period in association with greater muscle development influenced by androgenic steroids in males (13,14) and that a decline in occlusal force
is associated with masticatory performance with ageing.
(11) The occlusal force
, activated during mastication and swallowing, is reduced by occlusal rest and lateral forces is minimized by the proper selection of an occlusal scheme, elimination of premature occlusal contacts, and wide distribution of stabilizing components.
The clinical problems seen in patients with talon cusps comprise of stagnation of food, caries, periapical lesions, irritation of tongue during speech and mastication, other soft tissue irritation, breast feeding problems, compromised aesthetics, occlusal interference which may lead to accidental cusp fracture, displacement of the affected tooth, temporomandibular joint pain, and periodontal problems because of excessive occlusal force
Food impaction is the forceful wedging of food into the periodontium by occlusal force
. It may occur interproximally or in relation the facial or lingual tooth surfaces.
The maximum occlusal force
has been reported in the literature to vary widely.