episcopus (internal 3) share the parasphenoid rostro in approximately 50% of the distance from the occipital condyle
to the articulation of the pterygoid (character 9, condition 1); reduced TubercleT (character 10, condition 1); short lateral palatine crest (character 14, condition 1); long ventral palatine crest (character 16, condition 1); wide vomer (character 18, condition 1); inconspicuous superior temporal crest (character 25, condition 1), cerebellar prominence not prominent (character 26, condition 1); zygomatic process from 60 to 70% of the distance between its origin and the jugal bar (character 19, condition 1).
Montesano, "Morphology and treatment of occipital condyle
fractures," Spine, vol.
The most reliable single parameter for sex determination was the occipital condyle
length (69.5%) followed by Radinsky's area (66.9%).
In a study of jugular foramen, it was found that the right jugular foramen was divided into two compartments by the intrajugular process; the anterior and the posterior part, same as in present study11.In a research on dried skulls and cadavers, osteophytes on the articular surfaces of the median atlanto-axial joint (n = 63), third occipital condyles
(n = 3) and the free ossicles (n = 22) were found.12 It was observed in a case of pediatric Bow Hunter's stroke which resulted from a nearly complete occlusion of the vertebral artery of right sidedue to an abnormal spur arising from the right occipital condyle
.13 This finding is similar to the present study where a spur originates from right occipital condyle
Again, the tumor had invaded the occipital condyle
and the hypoglossal canal on the left.
Basal skull length is length of skull from rostral to occipital condyle
; total skull length is length from rostral to posterior margin of frill, measured along same line as basal skull length (Ostrom, 1966).
Zona, "A case of asymptomatic occipital condyle
fracture with incomplete occipitocervical dislocation: how did it happen?," World Neurosurgery, vol.
Total Number Variation Skulls of Cases % Atlanto-Occipital Fusion 105 3 2.86 Duplication of Condyles 105 2 1.90 Median (third) Occipital Condyle
105 1 0.95 A.
Lateral view (Figure 2a): (1) supra occipital basis; (2) skull anterior extremity, leveled to the first incisor alveolus; (3) post extremity of the occipital condyle
; (4) dorsal external auditory meatus; (5) third molar post extremity; (6) alveolar limit between first and second molar; (7) alveolar limit between third pre-molar and first molar; (8) alveolar limit between first and second pre-molar; (9) canine alveolus anterior extremity; (10) ocular orbit; (11) nasal fossa dorsal extremity; (12) rostrum/skull congruent point; (13) skull anterior lateral extremity; (14) intersection between interparietal and supraoccipital bone.
The lower clivus involves the jugular tubercule to the foramen magnum and occipital condyle
.[2,3,7] The lateral margins of the clivus are the petrooccipital fissures through which the inferior petrosal sinus empties into the jugular bulb.[2,3,7] The clivus varies from 37 to 52 mm in length and averages 11 mm in width from the anterior narrow portion to 14.3 mm in width at the posterior widest portion. To further simplify this anatomical description, the clivus is the bony floor of the midline of the posterior fossa in which the brainstem sits.