obstructive jaundice


Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia.

jaundice

 [jawn´dis]
yellowness of skin, sclerae, mucous membranes, and excretions due to hyperbilirubinemia and deposition of bile pigments. It is usually first noticeable in the eyes, although it may come on so gradually that it is not immediately noticed by those in daily contact with the jaundiced person. Called also icterus.

Jaundice is not a disease; it is a symptom of a number of different diseases and disorders of the liver and gallbladder and of hemolytic blood disorders. One such disorder is the presence of a gallstone in the common bile duct, which carries bile from the liver to the intestine. This may obstruct the flow of bile, causing it to accumulate and enter the bloodstream. The obstruction of bile flow may cause bile to enter the urine, making it dark in color, and also decrease the bile in the stool, making it light and clay-colored. This condition requires surgery to remove the gallstone before it causes serious liver injury.

The pigment causing jaundice is called bilirubin. It is derived from hemoglobin that is released when erythrocytes are hemolyzed and therefore is constantly being formed and introduced into the blood as worn-out or defective erythrocytes are destroyed by the body. Normally the liver cells absorb the bilirubin and secrete it along with other bile constituents. If the liver is diseased, or if the flow of bile is obstructed, or if destruction of erythrocytes is excessive, the bilirubin accumulates in the blood and eventually will produce jaundice. Determination of the level of bilirubin in the blood is of value in detecting elevated bilirubin levels at the earliest stages before jaundice appears, when liver disease or hemolytic anemia is suspected.
Patient Care. Assessment of the patient with jaundice includes observations of the degree and location of yellowing, noting the color of urine and stools, and the presence of itching. Since jaundice can be accompanied by severe itching, frequent skin care is important to preserve skin integrity. Tepid sponge baths can help reduce discomfort and promote rest.

Patients with severe jaundice are at risk for encephalopathic changes that produce confusion, impaired mentation, and altered levels of consciousness. The potential for injury is increased and demands vigilance and safety measures to protect the patient.
Jaundice may be attributable to prehepatic (A), hepatic (B), or posthepatic (C) causes. From Damjanov, 2000.
acholuric jaundice jaundice without bilirubinemia, associated with elevated unconjugated bilirubin that is not excreted by the kidney. Familial acholuric jaundice is another name for the hereditary form of hemolytic jaundice.
breast milk jaundice elevated unconjugated bilirubin in some breast-fed infants due to the presence of an abnormal pregnane that inhibits glucuronyl transferase conjugating activity.
cholestatic jaundice that resulting from abnormality of bile flow in the liver.
familial nonhemolytic jaundice Gilbert disease.
hematogenous jaundice hemolytic jaundice.
hemolytic jaundice see hemolytic jaundice.
hepatocellular jaundice jaundice caused by injury to or disease of the liver cells.
leptospiral jaundice Weil's syndrome.
neonatal jaundice (jaundice of the newborn) icterus neonatorum.
nonhemolytic jaundice that due to an abnor-mality in bilirubin metabolism.
obstructive jaundice that due to blockage of the flow of bile.
physiologic jaundice mild icterus neonatorum during the first few days after birth.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

ob·struc·tive jaun·dice

jaundice resulting from obstruction to the flow of bile into the duodenum, whether intrahepatic or extrahepatic.
Synonym(s): mechanical jaundice
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012

obstructive jaundice

Hepatology Jaundice due to obstruction of the flow of bile through the cystic duct into the ampulla of Vater and thence into the small intestine. See Jaundice.
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.

ob·struc·tive jaun·dice

(ŏb-strŭk'tiv jawn'dis)
Hepatic disorder resulting from obstruction to the flow of bile into the duodenum, whether intra- or extrahepatic.
Synonym(s): mechanical jaundice.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012

obstructive jaundice

JAUNDICE caused by any process in the liver or bile ducts that prevents the normal outflow of bile. Obstructive jaundice is commonly caused by GALLSTONES (large duct obstruction) or a cancer of the head of the PANCREAS, or by disease processes that occlude the small bile ducts within the liver, such as HEPATITIS and CIRRHOSIS (small duct obstruction). Unrelieved obstruction causes ever-deepening jaundice.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

ob·struc·tive jaun·dice

(ŏb-strŭk'tiv jawn'dis)
Hepatic disorder resulting from obstruction to the flow of bile into the duodenum, whether intra- or extrahepatic.
Synonym(s): mechanical jaundice.
Medical Dictionary for the Dental Professions © Farlex 2012
References in periodicals archive ?
Ten years single center experience in percutaneous transhepatic decompression of biliary tree in patients with malignant obstructive jaundice. Adv Clin Exp Med 2012; 21(4): 621-32.
Short and long-term effects of bacterial translocation due to obstructive jaundice on liver damage.
Fifteen patients with liver hydatid cysts underwent ERCP preoperatively due to obstructive jaundice and cholangitis resulting from bile duct occlusion (Figure 1).
Liu et al., "Prognostic value of inflammation-based markers in patients with recurrent malignant obstructive jaundice treated by reimplantation of biliary metal stents: a retrospective observational study," Medicine, vol.
Four different mechanisms have been described in the literature as causes of obstructive jaundice secondary to hepatobiliary tuberculosis: porta hepatis TB lymphadenitis causing extrinsic compression of the common bile duct [5, 8, 10-13], head of pancreas involvement mimicking a pseudoneoplasm and obstructive the distal common bile duct [10, 14-18], a retroperitoneal mass caused by TB obstructing the distal bile duct [19], and a direct involvement of biliary epithelium or pericholangitis resulting in a single or multiple strictures mimicking cholangiocarcinoma [20-22].
This complication causes obstructive jaundice due to the direct compression by the stone or due to fibrosis as a result of chronic inflammation.
Kumar, "A prospective study on etiology and management of obstructive jaundice due to extra hepatic biliary obstruction," Stanley Medical Journal, vol.
[2] He CS, Yue HY, Xu J, Xue F, Liu J, Li YY, et al Protective effects of capillary artemisia polysaccharide on oxidative injury to the liver in rats with obstructive jaundice. Exp Ther Med 2012;4(4):645-8.
(1) While the incidence of metastatic malignant melanoma to the GI tract is well documented, dissemination to the ampulla of Vater resulting in obstructive jaundice is far less common with very few clinical cases reported so far.
Biliary symptoms are, however, present in most patients with limy bile syndrome including epigastric and right upper quadrant abdominal pain.9 Limy bile presenting as obstructive jaundice is reported in a handful of cases only.4,9,10
Although (periampullary) diverticuli usually do not cause symptoms, they can serve as a source of obstructive jaundice. This duodenal diverticulum obstructive jaundice syndrome is called Lemmel's syndrome [2].

Full browser ?