The skin and subcutaneous tissue on the abdominal flank, spreading horizontally from the midline to the midaxillary line and vertically from the 10th thoracic vertebra to the sacrum, were removed to reveal the LD, external oblique muscle
(EO), and the posterior layer of the TLF.
The number of the eyes which underwent single muscle surgery was 18: 17 with muscle weakening procedure and a single eye with a single muscle strengthening procedure, while 24 eyes underwent two or three muscle surgeries: 18 eyes out of 24 underwent combined weakening-strengthening and 6 eyes underwent combined muscle weakening procedures (rectus and oblique muscles
These include the spindle-shaped (e.g., the gracilis), the simple pinnate (e.g., external abdominal oblique muscle
), bi-pinnate, two-headed (e.g., two-headed arm muscle), parallel (e.g., straight abdominal muscle), and uni-pinnate muscle (e.g., trapezius muscle).
We removed a small number of the skin and then removed the tumor at the 3–5 cm distance, including the attached muscles (serratus anterior and latissimus dorsi), the normal costa around the tumor, a part of the diaphragm, the adhesive lung, a part of the external oblique muscle
and of the internal oblique muscle
Then abdominal muscles (external oblique muscle
, internal oblique muscle
and transverse abdominis) were incised and bleeding vessels ligated.
EO: external oblique muscle
, IO: internal oblique muscle
, TA: transversus abdominis, QL: quadratus lumborum, white arrow: needle trajectory, and white dotted line: spread of local anesthetic.
The boundaries of the superior triangle are the posterior border of the internal oblique muscle
anteriorly, the anterior border of the sacrospinalis posteriorly, the twelfth rib, and the serratus posterior inferior muscle superiorly.
When a vertical deviation is greatest in adduction (overelevation in adduction), the primary oblique muscle
overaction could be the commonest cause .
We did not find oblique muscle
affection in any of our patients.
Heritability estimates for the rectus abdominis varied from 0.14 to 0.45, while they were 0.13 to 0.64 for the external abdominal oblique muscle
. Overall, the measured heritability for belly muscles varied greatly by section and within muscle.
Castillo, who signed a $72.5 million, seven-year contract with Boston last year after defecting from Cuba, missed two weeks of spring training with a sore oblique muscle