According to the IUPAC, limits of detection (LD) were designated as three-fold the SD of the blank, and were the following: 0.05 ng/mL for [alpha]-HCH; 0.07 ng/mL for [beta]-HCH, HCB, heptachlor epoxide A, and endosulfan I; 0.04 ng/mL for [gamma]-HCH; 0.13 ng/mL for o,p'-DDT; 0.02 ng/mL for p,p'-DDT; 0.12 ng/mL for p,p'-DDD and o,p'-DDD
; 0.09 ng/mL for heptachlor epoxide B, trans-nonachlor, [alpha]-chlordane, [gamma]-chlordane, dieldrin, and p,p'-DDE; 0.29 ng/mL for endrin; 0.14 ng/mL for methoxychlor; 0.10 ng/mL for o,p'-DDE, aldrin, and mirex; 0.11 ng/mL for endosulfan II; and 0.06 ng/mL for pentachloroanisole.
We excluded studies to assess the therapeutic use of o,p'-DDD
iso-form, commercially known as mitotane or lysodren.
Among the analysed pesticide residues, the following residues were detected in cabbage: p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD
, endosulfans, chlorpyrifos, and cypermethrin.
In this method, 1 L of continental water, spiked with 5 [micro]L of anthracene deuterated (10 ng [micro][L.sup.-1]) as surrogate, is employed to determine the selected organochlorine pesticides (p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD
, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT, [ALPHA]-HCH, [beta]-HCH, [gamma]-HCH, atrazine, simazine, metolachlor, terbuthylazine, aldrin, dieldrin, endrin, isodrin, and hexachlorobenzene).
The following analytes were not detected above the MDL in any squirrel liver samples: [alpha]-HCH, [beta]-HCH, [delta]-HCH, heptachlor, aldrin, endosulfan 2, pentachloroanisole, and o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD
, o,p'-DDT and PCBs 29, 44, and 200.
The concentrations of the other DDT congeners, p,p'-DDT, p,p'-DDD, 41-DDT, and o,p'-DDD
, were not detectable in either tissue at either age (data not shown).
The median (interquartile range) concentrations for the respective DDT isomers (micrograms per gram lipid) in cases were as follows: o,p'-DDT, 0.37 (0.00-1.25); p,p'-DDT, 5.66 (1.54-22.40); o,p'-DDD
[1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl) ethane], 0.00 (0.00-0.28); p,p'-DDD, 0.00 (0.00-0.50); o,p'-DDE, 0.00 (0.00-0.17); p,p'-DDE, 34.12 (0.71-120.78).
For the remaining eight compounds [methoxychlor, cis-chlordane, PCA, [gamma]-HCH, 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2,2(4-chlorophenyl)ethane (o,p'-DDD
), trans-chlordane, [alpha]-HCH, 1,1-dichloro-2-(2-chlorophenyl)-2-(4-chlorophenyl) ethylene (o,p'-DDE)], the total detection rate varied between 26.9 and 71.5%.
However, o,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDD
, aldrin, endrin, and methoxychlor were not detected in any of the tissues in this study.
For DDT-related compounds, only p,p'-DDT and p,p'-DDE were retained in the analysis because these compounds comprised 19% and 80%, respectively, of the total geometric mean lipid-adjusted concentration for the six DDT-related compounds (p,p'-DDD, o,p'-DDD
, p,p'-DDE, o,p'-DDE, p,p'-DDT, o,p'-DDT).
1997: hER reporter in yeast/ Miller units [beta]- galactosidase enzyme activity Estradiol-17[beta] (reference chemical) 1 0.4360 o,p'-DDT 50 0.3960 o,p'-DDT 1,000 0.6550 o,p'-DDE 1,000 0.6750 o,p'-DDD
1,000 0.5810 p,p'-DDT 1,000 0.4950 p,p'-DDE 1,000 0.0000 p,p'-DDA 1,000 0.0000 Chen et al.