nutrition (noo-trish'on, nu-) [L. nutritio, feeding]
The ingestion and utilization of food by which growth, repair, and maintenance of activities in the body are accomplished. The body is able to store some nutrients (glycogen, calcium, iron) for times when food intake is insufficient. Vitamin C is an example of a nutrient that is not stored. See: total parenteral nutrition
2. The professional discipline that includes both the scientific study and the practical use of nutrients in health. nutritional (-trish'on-al), adjective
Nutrition provided through a tube placed into the stomach or small intestine. This may be accomplished through a nasogastric tube, a percutaneous gastrostomy tube, or a jejunostomy.
exclusion enteral nutrition Abbreviation: EEN
A form of nutrition in which a patient receives nothing by mouth but obtains all calories, minerals, and vitamins via tube feedings.
Transplacental passage of nutrients from the maternal bloodstream to the fetal circulation.
nutrition: less than body requirements, imbalanced
Intake of nutrients insufficient to meet metabolic needs.
nutrition: more than body requirements, imbalanced
Intake of nutrients that exceed metabolic needs.
partial enteral nutrition
Supplemental tube feeding or oral feeding of foods that are rich in protein, calories, and other nutrients to patients receiving partial parenteral nutrition. See: enteral nutrition
partial parenteral nutrition Abbreviation: PPN
Intravenous administration of nutrients to patients whose nutritional requirements cannot be fully met via the enteral route. An amino acid–dextrose solution (usually 10%) and a lipid emulsion (10% to 20%) are delivered into a peripheral vein through a cannula or catheter.
nutrition: risk for more than body requirements, imbalanced
At risk for an intake of nutrients that exceeds metabolic needs.
total enteral nutritionEnteral tube feeding.
total parenteral nutrition Abbreviation: TPN
The intravenous provision of dextrose, amino acids, emulsified fats, trace elements, vitamins, and minerals to patients who are unable to assimilate adequate nutrition by mouth. Patients with many illnesses become malnourished if they are unable to eat a balanced diet for more than a few weeks. Patients who have been hospitalized for a prolonged period, have had no oral intake for several days, or have a cachectic disorder should be assessed for the need for nutritional support. However, only a small percentage of these patients clearly benefit from parenteral nutritional support in clinical trials. Patients who benefit most from TPN are those at the extremes of nutritional risk, e.g., preterm or newborn infants who require surgery or the 5% of adult surgical candidates who are the most nutritionally deficient. Patients who may occasionally benefit from TPN include those with inflammatory bowel disease, radiation enteritis, bowel obstruction, and related intestinal diseases. In many other patients, the anticipated risks of malnutrition and starvation are exceeded by the potential risks of TPN, which include injury during central line placement, sepsis as a result of infectious contamination of intravenous lines, and metabolic complications, e.g., refeeding syndrome.
Patients requiring 7 to 10 days of nutritional support may benefit from the administration of parenteral nutrition through a peripheral venous catheter. This method limits the caloric intensity of TPN to about 2300 kcal/day (ca. 900 mOsm/kg) because more concentrated formulas cause peripheral vein inflammation. With central TPN, patients have been occasionally supported for several months with limited overt complications. The superior vena cava tolerates feedings of up to 1900 mOsm/kg. Typically, central TPN includes individually tailored amounts of dextrose, amino acids, lipids, vitamins, trace elements, heparin, insulin, and other substances. In patients with specific diseases, some nutrients may be limited, for example, sodium (in congestive heart failure), protein content (in liver failure), and potassium (in renal failure).
The procedure is explained to the patient, and a nutritional assessment is obtained. Intake and output are monitored and recorded. The nurse assists with catheter insertion and observes for adverse effects, documents procedure and initial fluid administration, and continues to monitor fluid intake. The catheter insertion site is inspected and redressed every 24 to 48 hr according to agency protocol; a strict aseptic technique is used for this procedure. The condition of the site and position of the catheter are documented, and the catheter is evaluated for leakage; if present, this should be reported to the physician. Electrolytes are monitored. Vitamin supplements are administered as prescribed. The patient is observed for edema and dehydration. If diarrhea or nausea occurs, the infusion rate is slowed. Urine sugar and acetone tests are performed every 6 hr, and blood sugar levels are monitored as prescribed. Daily weights are obtained. The solution should never be discontinued abruptly but tapered off with isotonic glucose administered for several hours. In the event of catheter blockage or accidental removal, the physician should be notified immediately. Patients should be encouraged to ambulate. Some patients recuperating from long illnesses are released from the hospital with self-administered TPN until they are able to resume eating. These patients need to be taught how to use TPN in the home.
Although TPN is often necessary, in most instances the best way to nourish a patient is by mouth or enterally (by intestinal tube). Oral and enteral feedings preserve the integrity of the intestinal mucosa, maintain a normal pH in the stomach, prevent the entry of bacteria into the body through the walls of the gastrointestinal tract, and are less expensive than parenteral nutrition. Chronic liver failure is the most common, potentially life-threatening complication in patients who need to be maintained on TPN for more than a year.
pertaining to or emanating from nutrition.
chemical analysis of ration ingredients or, more commonly, consultation of a table of approximate composition of feedstuffs.
nutritional deficiency disease
disease caused by a deficiency of a particular nutrient in the feed. Includes the micro- and macronutrients of minerals, vitamins, carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The specific diseases are described under their individual titles.
nutritional gill disease
caused by a nutritional deficiency of pantothenic acid. The gills of affected fish hypertrophy, show clubbing and fuse together causing interference with gaseous exchange.
an excess of protein in the diet may cause visceral and even articular gout
nutritional hyperparathyroidism nutritional infertility
infertility due to a nutritional deficiency, principally caloric.
nutritional muscular dystrophy nutritional myodegeneration nutritional panniculitis
disease of cats, mink, foals and pigs associated with the feeding of fish offal, fish meal or rations containing high levels of unsaturated fatty acids. Palpable thickening and solidity of subcutaneous fat; may be associated with myopathy, gastric ulcer or hepatosis dietetica.
nutritional secondary hypercalcitonism nutritional secondary hyperparathyroidism nutritional status
the state of the body with respect to each nutrient and to the overall state of the body weight and condition.
the stress of inadequate nutrition of total nutrients.
addition of a nutrient to an existing diet to make good what might be only a temporary shortfall. May be made available in a salt or mineral mix or block, or may be mixed in with a feed or even in drinking water. For pastured animals other means are used but foliar dusting comes close to being a nutritional supplement.
Patient discussion about nutritional
Q. How do I now if my nutrition is correct? I guess it's not... and Id like to fix it but dont really know what should I change...
A. Read more about the recommended nutrition, and learn how to analyze yours here (www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/nutrition.html), and if you have further concerns, you may want to consult a professional (e.g. dietitian). In general, nutrition should include about 30-35 calories per kg per day.
Eat a healthy diet with a lot of vegetables, fruits, and whole grains and a limited amount of red meat. Get at least five servings of fruits and vegetables every day. More is even better. Tips for achieving this goal include: Make fruits and vegetables part of every meal. Frozen or canned can be used when fresh isn't convenient. Put fruit on your cereal. Eat vegetables as snacks. Have a bowl of fruit out all the time for kids to take snacks from.
Cut down on bad fats (trans fatty acids and saturated fats) and consume good fats (polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fat like olive oil and canola oil). Tips for achieving this goal include: Choose chicken, fish, or beans instead of red meat and ch
Q. Will it be good and what is its nutritional value? I wish to take oats as my breakfast with milk or juice. Will it be good and what is its nutritional value?
A. It is undoubtedly a good idea to have oats as your breakfast with milk or juice. It is well known for its high fiber content which is the best remedy for constipation and also plays a vital role in the cholesterol management and smoothens the digestive process. It also helps you in loosing body weight. It is even good for nervous system and in turn treats depression as well. Around 150gm of oat gives 600kcal energy. Apart from protein, lipid, carbohydrate and fiber content, it is a very good source of minerals such as calcium, iron sodium, zinc, and vitamins like vitamin C, B, A.
Q. What is the nutritional value of oats? I am having oats for my morning breakfast from last week, as I know it is good to have them. But what is the nutritional value of oats?
A. oats are rich with vitamins, energy and protein. makes a wonderful breakfast! (at least when my wife makes it!!). More discussions about nutritional
here's a link to a nutritional value list of oats:
and here's a link to some recipes!:
bread - http://momsrecipesandmore.blogspot.com/2008/12/toasted-oatmeal-bread.html
Biscuits - http://www.vegan-food.net/recipe/927/Oatmeal-Raisin-Cookies/