nutcracker phenomenon

nutcracker syndrome

nonglomerular hematuria due to compression of the left renal vein between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery; renal hilar varices, collateral veins, and proteinuria may be found. See: nutcracker.
A rare clinical complex which occurs in relatively young and previously healthy people, which is characterised by compression of the left renal vein (LRV) between the aorta and superior mesenteric artery (SMA), fancifully likened to the effect of a nutcracker, with the aorta and SMA each corresponding to an arm of the nutcracker and the LRV to the nut itself. The squeezing can lead to left renal vein hypertension, resulting in rupture of the thin walled vein into the renal calyceal fornix
Diagnosis Left renal venography—gold standard test, CT, abdominal ultrasonography
DiffDx Kidney stones, genitourinary malignancy, loin pain haematuria syndrome
Management Nephrectomy, nephropexy, renocaval reimplantation, auto-transplantation, left renal vein transposition, stenting, gonadal vein embolisation

nutcracker phenomenon

Nutcracker syndrome A clinical finding in Hb SC disease, in which left-sided renal hemorrhage causes infarction of renal papillae, due to ↑ pressure as the left renal vein passes between the aorta and the superior mesenteric artery; ↑ pressure causes renal medullary hypoxia sufficient to sickle the RBCs
References in periodicals archive ?
Doppler sonographic indices in diagnosing the nutcracker phenomenon in a hematuric adolescent.
Nutcracker phenomenon demonstrated by three-dimensional computed tomography.
Nutcracker phenomenon is characterized by impeded outflow from the left renal vein into the inferior vena cava because of extrinsic left renal vein compression.
Nutcracker phenomenon, also known as left renal vein entrapment, is characterized by impeded outflow from the left renal vein into the inferior vena cava because of extrinsic left renal vein compression (').
The nutcracker phenomenon (NCP) should be defined separately, as the configuration of the vessels results in the compression of the left renal vein and its dilatation after narrowing in asymptomatic patients.
Abbreviations Ao: Abdominal aorta CTA: Computed tomography angiography IMA: Inferior mesenteric artery IVC: Inferior vena cava LRV: Left renal vein MRA: Magnetic resonance angiography NCP: Nutcracker phenomenon NCS: Nutcracker syndrome SMA: Superior mesenteric artery.
The nutcracker phenomenon (NCP) refers to the compression of left renal vein (LRV) most commonly between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and aorta.
Nutcracker phenomenon of the left renal vein causing left renal vein pathology.
"Nutcracker phenomenon" is due to increased pressure in RLRV which is communicated through gonadal, ascending lumbar, adrenal and ureteral veins.
Nutcracker phenomenon: A new diagnostic method of multislice computed tomography angiography.
(1,3) The etiology of left predominance in idiopathic cases has been postulated to be stretching of the renal vein over the aorta and compression between the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the aorta, known as the nutcracker phenomenon. (1,4) In addition, extensive collaterals from other organs and weakness of the vein wall may be contributing factors.