has been considered to be a risk factor for endometrial carcinoma not because of tself but due to the anovulatory cycles in infertile subjects.
Three hundred women were enrolled in this study; 100 were multiparity pregnant women as study group, 100 were primiparity pregnant women as control positive group and 100 were nulliparity
(Non-pregnant women) were the control negative group.
In univariate analysis of the sociodemographic data, the following variables were found to be positively associated with wanting multiple births; the woman's age, infertility duration, nulliparity
, treatment in a public hospital and transfers of women's own oocyte fresh embryo.
Various animal model studies revealed that high serum levels of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) favoured endometriosis development and the disease severity was found in direct correlation with serum PCB levels.1 Similarly, the use of trans-fat increases the risk of endometriosis while omega 3 oils decrease the risk.2 Other risk factors of endometriosis are early menarche, nulliparity
, prolonged and frequent menstrual cycles, heavy menstrual bleeding and keeping intra-uterine contraceptive devices for long periods.3,4
as 0, low multiparity as 13, and grand multiparity as 4-8.
N (%) Mean age ([+ or -]SD), year 29.53 ([+ or -]4.47) Mean BMI (kg/[m.sup.2]) 21.90 (4.10) Education Primary school 2 (1.5) Junior high school 9 (6.6) Senior high school/vocational school 58 (42.3) Bachelor's degree 60 (44.1) Master's degree 7 (5.1) Gravida 1 55 (40.4) 2 52 (38.2) 3 22 (16.2) 4 4 (2.9) 5 2 (1.5) 6 1 (0.7) Parity Nulliparity
80 (58.8) Multiparity 56 (41.2) Abortion None 91 (66.9) 1 36 (26.5) 2 8 (5.9) 4 1 (0.7) Curettage None 112 (82.4) 1 19 (14.0) 2 5 (3.7)
Some studies have shown that hypertension, obesity, diabetes mellitus, and nulliparity
are risk factors for vulvar cancer .
Other associated factors include nulliparity
, a morbidly adherent fundal placenta, short umbilical cord and rare connective tissue disorders.
An unexplained social gradient in breast cancer incidence persists even when they control or adjust for known risk factors such as alcohol consumption and reproductive factors such as nulliparity
(childlessness) and older age at first full-term pregnancy, which are more prevalent in educated, professional women.
Risk factors include race (more prevalent in African American women), early menarche, nulliparity
, perimenopause, alcohol use, oral contraceptive use, and hormone replacement therapy.
(1) Episiotomy, instrumental delivery, vaginal lacerations, nulliparity
, prolongation of second phase of labor, vulvar and vaginal varicose veins, and coagulopathies are the main risk factors in the etiology of puerperal hematoma.
As a result, it is possible to suggest that MPA may inhibit the expression of collagenases in the uterus and modulate ECM proteins at therapeutic concentrations greater than 5mg/Kg; therefore, their biomechanical properties would not be different from those observed in uteri exposed to luteal progesterone in conditions of nulliparity