In the short-term, we urge the Government of Ethiopia to adopt full access, full choice for youth irrespective of marital status or nulliparity
by training all YFS providers to offer LARCs; and in the long-term include LARCs training in the national nursing and midwifery pre-service curricula in addition to YFS training.
In studies on the risk of BC, obesity and overweight (N = 14), positive menopause status (N = 13), family history of BC (N = 13), early age at menarche (N = 12), nulliparity
or decreased parity (N = 12), older age (N = 12) and short breastfeeding duration (N = 10) were the most often identified risk factors (Chart 2).
Several risk factors for BC have been identified, including sex, age, nulliparity
, short breastfeeding, menstrual and reproductive history, high body mass index (particularly in postmenopausal women), physical inactivity, high alcohol or energy intake, use of drugs with estrogenic action, exposure to ionizing radiation, specific genetic factors, family history of BC, previous diagnosis of non-malignant breast diseases, and high mammographic density (Hankinson et al.
Vaginal mucosa, while economic in that the excised mucosa would otherwise be discarded, may be insufficient if the patient has a small vaginal canal attributable to nulliparity
and testosterone therapy.
Other variables including prolong second stage of labor, forceps delivery, nulliparity
, induction of labor and baby birth weight >4 kg were reviewed as risk factors for suffering from OASIS after vaginal deliveries.
was not a significant factor in the aetiology of both benign and malignant ovarian masses and increasing parity has not been protective for women in this study.
TABLE 2 Clinical risk assessment for preeclampsia * (11) Risk level Risk factors Recommendation High1 History of preeclampsia, Recommend low-dose especially when accompanied aspirin if the by an adverse outcome patient has [greater Multifetal gestation than or equal to] 1 Chronic hypertension of these high risk Type 1 or 2 diabetes factors Renal disease Autoimmune disease (eg, SLE, antiphospholipid syndrome) Moderate * Nulliparity
Consider low-dose Obesity (BMI >30 kg/[m.
is also linked to increased risk of PE, in which the mother's immune system is thought to play a role in the initiation or progression of PE.
Independent risk factors for post-cesarean SSI, as described in the scientific literature that included multivariate analysis, are young age, obesity, hypertension or preeclampsia, diabetes mellitus, chorioamnionitis, nulliparity
, less than seven prenatal visits, extended time from rupture of membranes until cesarean, emergency cesarean delivery, lack of appropriate antibiotic prophylaxis, increased surgical time, and birth of twins.
Factors that increase oestrogen exposure have been associated with an increasing risk of endometrial cancer such as greater body fatness, postmenopausal oestrogen therapy, late menopause and nulliparity
2,3,8) Diabetes, hypertension, nulliparity
, infertility, and irregular menstrual cycles are common in this patient population, and some of these patients likely have polycystic ovarian disease.