Rather than seeking to promote decision-making competenc, as choice-independent nudges do, choice-dependent nudges seek to take advantage of cognitive or motivational biases to push people to choices the nudger
thinks they should make.
, by nature, prefer subtle forms of persuasion over blunt mandates and prohibitions.
Thaler and Sunstein advance nudging as superior to all other such efforts specifically because it allows individuals to easily reject the particular conception of the good that the nudgers
seek to advance.
advocate nutritional labeling on the assumption that there is a simple linear relationship between the availability of nutritional information and behavioral changes that improve public health.
All of this represents an unwinding of the Enlightenment, an unsettling of the bounds between our rulers and us, a throttling of the idea that individuals can survive, and in fact thrive, without guardians, without nudgers
, without the yoke of nonage.
Durham's one-day batting is made up of a couple of big-hitters at the top, followed by a middle order of nudgers
Against the nudgers
you might say that it's none of your business how I live my life.
Sunstein, suggest that nudging can be most beneficial when would-be nudgers
have much more "expertise" than decision makers themselves, when the context includes "decisions that are difficult, complex, and infrequent, and when [decisionmakers] have poor feedback and few opportunities for learning.
The idea of easy reversibility might, in these circumstances, seem a bit of rhetoric, even a fraud--perhaps comforting, to be sure, but not a realistic response to those who are concerned about potential errors or bad faith on the part of soft paternalists and nudgers
Given this, to justify their project nudgers
will often have to take a stand on whether and/or how much the future should be discounted, as well as on how, in their eyes, "well-being" and the best relevant model for the future should be defined.
plan to do away with old-style Blair/ Brown bossiness in favor of offering incentives, using subliminal messaging, and changing the "choice architecture" of our daffy lives to influence us toward "healthier decisions and healthier lives" Instead of using taxes to make it more expensive to drive cars, for example, the nudgers
will aim to rebuild public spaces in such a way that choosing to walk or ride a bicycle becomes easier than it currently is.
and winkers, claiming he is just a ducker and a diver, point out there's no transfer market in international management (though Jack Charlton came close to discovering one as Ireland boss).