(7,8) Aminoglycosidemodifying enzymes, including aminoglycoside phosphotransferase (APH), aminoglycoside acetyltransferase (AAC), and aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferase
, act as mediators in aminoglycoside resistance.
perfringens, the transposon-located tlSCpe8 nucleotidyltransferase
, which is encoded by the tInuP resistance gene and spreads by plasmid conjugation, can inactivate lincomycin (32).
According to STRING analysis, Dm-Csp1 is predicted to functionally interact with a variety of proteins including those (rpoB, rpoC, and rpoA, and rpoZ, RNA polymerase subunits) involved in transcription and a polyribonucleotide nucleotidyltransferase
(pnp) potentially playing a role in mRNA degradation (Figure 7).
Our phylogenetic analysis of the eubacterial, eukaryal, and archaeal CCA-adding enzymes shows that all known CCA-adding enzymes do indeed belong to a single nucleotidyltransferase superfamily, as might be expected if this activity was present in the last common ancestor of contemporary organisms.
Isolation of a temperature-sensitive mutant with an altered tRNA nucleotidyltransferase and cloning of the gene encoding tRNA nucleotidyltransferase in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
tRNA nucleotidyltransferase is not essential for Escherichia coli viability.
CCA-adding enzymes and poly(A) polymerases are all members of the same nucleotidyltransferase superfamily: characterization of the CCA-adding enzyme from the archaeal hyperthermophile Sulfolobus shibatae.
The enzymes most frequently used are: Klenow polymerase; T7 DNA polymerase; thermostable enzymes, e.g., Taq polymerase; T4 polynucleotide kinase; terminal deoxy nucleotidyltransferase
(tdT); T7 RNA polymerase; and SP6 RNA polymerase.
aminoglycoside acetyltransferases (AACs), aminoglycoside nucleotidyltransferases
(ANTs), and aminoglycoside phosphotransferases (APHs), each of which will chemically convert one or more substituents of the aminoglycosides (Fig.
These enzymes, classified as aminoglycoside acetyltransferases, nucleotidyltransferases
or phosphotransferases, catalyze the transfer of acetyl, adenosine monophosphate or phosphate groups onto the aminoglycoside antibiotics (Wright et al., 1998).
None were positive for the nucleotidyltransferases
aadB or aadA1 genes (Figure 3).
The second most common types of AME were phosphotransferases, followed by nucleotidyltransferases
in which aph(3)-IV and ant(3)-I were detected among 50% (33/66) and 44% (29/66) of isolates, respectively.