nucleotide


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nucleotide

 [noo´kle-o-tīd]
any of a group of compounds obtained by hydrolysis of nucleic acids, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), which in turn is esterified with phosphoric acid.
cyclic n's those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd),
Originally a combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group; by extension, any compound containing a heterocyclic compound bound to a phosphorylated sugar by an N-glycosyl link (for example, adenosine monophosphate, NAD+). For individual nucleotides see specific names.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide

nucleotide

(no͞o′klē-ə-tīd′, nyo͞o′-)
n.
Any of a group of compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and constituting the units that make up DNA and RNA molecules.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd)
A combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide.

nucleotide

A molecule formed from the bonding of a purine or a pyrimidine base with a sugar and a mono-, di- or tri-phosphate group. Compare NUCLEOSIDE. Four different nucleotides may polymerize to form DNA. They are 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate; and 2'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate. These lengthy names are commonly abbreviated to dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP. Even this is too clumsy when printing out the sequence of nucleotides in a length of DNA. In that case they are abbreviated to A, G, C and T (for adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine). In RNA the sugar is not 2'-deoxyribose, but ribose itself. Also one of the RNA bases differs from that in DNA. Thymine is replaced by uracil. So the nucleotides of RNA are adenosine 5'-triphosphate; guanosine 5'-triphosphate; cytidine 5'-triphosphate; and uridine 5'-triphosphate. These are abbreviated to ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP or simply A, G, C and U.
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 232 Nucleotide . Basic units of (a) deoxyribose sugar, (b) phosphate. Each carbon atom is numbered (1 prime, 2 prime, etc).
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 233 Nucleotide . Linkage of the three nucleotide elements.

nucleotide

a complex organic molecule forming the basic unit of NUCLEIC ACIDS, with a structure made up of three components: a pentose sugar (ribose, or deoxyribose with one less oxygen atom), an organic base (PURINE type: ADENINE and GUANINE; or PYRIMIDINE type: CYTOSINE, THYMINE and URACIL) and a phosphate group (see Fig. 232 ). The three elements are linked together by two condensation reactions between the 1 sugar carbon and a base forming a NUCLEOSIDE, and the 5' sugar carbon and the phosphate (see Fig. 233 ). The nucleotides are formed into POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAINS.

Nucleotide

Any of a group of organic molecules that link together to form the building blocks of DNA or RNA.
Mentioned in: Myotonic Dystrophy
References in periodicals archive ?
This pair was termed as "Internal Primers" which amplifies a region of about 0.58 kb from nucleotide number 2814 to 185.
At residue 77 of HBcAg, there is a G-C (Glu to Gln) switch in nucleotide 2129 (Glu77Gln; codons GAA to CAA) that is accompanied by a change in charge from acidic to polar uncharged (but no change in secondary structure), as well as an A-Y (Glu to Asp) change in nucleotide 2131 (GAA to GAY), which is accompanied by a change in secondary structure from alpha-helix to turn-and-loop (but no change in charge).
Apparently, the opposite movement of the U and C proportions in coronaviral genomes is a distinctive feature, and hence, an important parameter in shaping coronaviral phylogenies is based on nucleotide substitution (Figure 3(b)).
Baseline Characteristic of CHB Patients with Nucleotide Analogue-Related PRTD.
In order to verify the efficiency of incorporation of modified nucleotides in a DNA strand, we carried out a series of PCRs using various types of thermostable DNA polymerases.
It can signify a selective promotion and establishment of this type of single- nucleotide variation and explains the shortage of examples of substitutions that would decrease the frequency of usage of codons for the mGH gene.
Deep (and "ultra-deep") sequencing can go up to depths of over 100 reads per nucleotide, although the use of the term and its boundary to "normal" read depths is somewhat ambiguous and these terms are sometimes applied even below the 30 reads/nucleotide boundary.
coli can replicate only if fed the synthetic nucleotides; they can't make them themselves.
Nucleotide Identities at Corresponding Positions at the Ends of Mouse and Human Introns.
According to Figure 1, it showed some similarity or difference among nucleotides sequences that were aligned.
The company is encouraged by the early efficacy and safety data being generated with its nucleotide analogues, PSI-7977 and PSI-938, said Dr Michelle Berrey, Pharmasset's chief medical officer.
National Institutes of Health (NIH) provided $3 billion to fund an international project for the purpose of sequencing the three billion nucleotide bases comprising the complete human genome.