nucleotide


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nucleotide

 [noo´kle-o-tīd]
any of a group of compounds obtained by hydrolysis of nucleic acids, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), which in turn is esterified with phosphoric acid.
cyclic n's those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd),
Originally a combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group; by extension, any compound containing a heterocyclic compound bound to a phosphorylated sugar by an N-glycosyl link (for example, adenosine monophosphate, NAD+). For individual nucleotides see specific names.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide

nucleotide

/nu·cleo·tide/ (noo´kle-o-tīd″) one of the compounds into which nucleic acid is split by action of nuclease; nucleotides are composed of a base (purine or pyrimidine), a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphate group.
cyclic nucleotides  those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.

nucleotide

(no͞o′klē-ə-tīd′, nyo͞o′-)
n.
Any of a group of compounds consisting of a nucleoside combined with a phosphate group and constituting the units that make up DNA and RNA molecules.

nucleotide

[no̅o̅′klē·ətīd′]
a compound consisting of one or more phosphate groups, a pentose sugar, and a nitrogenous base. Chains of nucleotides form DNA and RNA; free nucleotides, such as adenosine triphosphate and guanosine triphosphate, are important energy carriers in all cells.

nu·cle·o·tide

(nū'klē-ō-tīd)
A combination of a (nucleic acid) purine or pyrimidine, one sugar (usually ribose or deoxyribose), and a phosphoric group.
Synonym(s): mononucleotide.

nucleotide

A molecule formed from the bonding of a purine or a pyrimidine base with a sugar and a mono-, di- or tri-phosphate group. Compare NUCLEOSIDE. Four different nucleotides may polymerize to form DNA. They are 2'-deoxyadenosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxyguanosine 5'-triphosphate; 2'-deoxycytidine 5'-triphosphate; and 2'-deoxythymidine 5'-triphosphate. These lengthy names are commonly abbreviated to dATP, dGTP, dCTP and dTTP. Even this is too clumsy when printing out the sequence of nucleotides in a length of DNA. In that case they are abbreviated to A, G, C and T (for adenine, guanine, cytosine and thymine). In RNA the sugar is not 2'-deoxyribose, but ribose itself. Also one of the RNA bases differs from that in DNA. Thymine is replaced by uracil. So the nucleotides of RNA are adenosine 5'-triphosphate; guanosine 5'-triphosphate; cytidine 5'-triphosphate; and uridine 5'-triphosphate. These are abbreviated to ATP, GTP, CTP and UTP or simply A, G, C and U.
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 232 Nucleotide . Basic units of (a) deoxyribose sugar, (b) phosphate. Each carbon atom is numbered (1 prime, 2 prime, etc).
Nucleotideclick for a larger image
Fig. 233 Nucleotide . Linkage of the three nucleotide elements.

nucleotide

a complex organic molecule forming the basic unit of NUCLEIC ACIDS, with a structure made up of three components: a pentose sugar (ribose, or deoxyribose with one less oxygen atom), an organic base (PURINE type: ADENINE and GUANINE; or PYRIMIDINE type: CYTOSINE, THYMINE and URACIL) and a phosphate group (see Fig. 232 ). The three elements are linked together by two condensation reactions between the 1 sugar carbon and a base forming a NUCLEOSIDE, and the 5' sugar carbon and the phosphate (see Fig. 233 ). The nucleotides are formed into POLYNUCLEOTIDE CHAINS.

Nucleotide

Any of a group of organic molecules that link together to form the building blocks of DNA or RNA.
Mentioned in: Myotonic Dystrophy

nucleotide

combination of nucleic acid, purine or pyramidine, sugar (ribose or deoxyribose) and a phosphate group

nucleotide

any of a group of compounds obtained by hydrolysis of nucleic acids, consisting of a purine or pyrimidine base linked to a sugar (ribose or deoxyribose), which in turn is esterified with phosphoric acid. See also nucleoside, deoxyribonucleic acid.

cyclic n's
those in which the phosphate group bonds to two atoms of the sugar forming a ring, as in cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP, which act as intracellular second messengers.
nucleotide sequences
see dna sequencing.
single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs)
single base pair changes that distinguish one individual from another of the same species.
References in periodicals archive ?
Identification of specific sequence motifs was made based on the direct analysis of the determined nucleotide sequence of the mGH gene.
The length of the variable part is 20-30 nucleotides, which comprises a huge combinatorial variety of possible variants of molecules capable to form diverse secondary and tertiary structures.
The nucleotide differences among examined Cladosporium species showed lower variations where it was only 4 nucleotides differences between Cl.
the document nucleotide does not match the query nucleotide identically.
A map of human genome sequence variation containing 1,42 million single nucleotide polymorphisms.
Figure 1 shows the nucleotide frequencies at each position from -18 to +13 surrounding the translational initiation sites from each taxon.
The Company's clinical stage pipeline includes FV-100, a bicyclic nucleoside inhibitor in Phase II development for the treatment of shingles, and INX-189, a nucleotide polymerase inhibitor in development for the treatment of chronic infections caused by hepatitis C virus (HCV).
Two pairs of primers were designed for determination of the nucleotide sequence of the Americanmink MC4R gene:
In the cell culture supernatant analysis by the RDV method, the specimen exhibited amplification of the partial nucleotide sequences of coxsackie A14 virus (nucleotide sequence data are available in the DDBJ/EMBL/GenBank databases under accession nos.
Each reaction mix includes (a) the sample DNA; (b) an enzyme named DNA polymerase, which synthesizes new DNA strands; (c) a primer, which is a small piece of single-stranded DNA with a sequence complementary to a short section of the sample DNA; (d) the four common nucleotides (A, T, G, and C); and (e) small amounts of the four nucleotides that are modified and tagged with a fluorescent dye, using a unique dye for each type of nucleotide.
Reading through homopolymers is important because it is estimated that a large fraction of the human genome is represented by stretches of nucleotide repeats referred to as homopolymeric regions.