Venom from spitting elapids contains 67-73% three finger toxins (3FTXs), 22-30% phospholipases [A.sub.2] (PL[A.sub.2]), 2.1% snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs), and minor quantities of nucleotidases
and cysteine-rich secretory proteins (CRISPs) (Hus et al.
Snake venoms comprise pharmacologically active proteins and peptides, both enzymatic and nonenzymatic, such as phospholipases A2, metalloproteinases, serine proteinases, nucleotidases
, L-amino acid oxidase, disintegrins, and Ctype lectins [1-4].
The proinflammatory signaling of extracellular ATP is terminated by nucleotidases
active in the interstitial fluid and the membrane-bound ectonucleotidases, CD39 and CD73 (Fig.
Among hydrolytic enzymes proteases phospholipases (PLA) were more screened pharmacologically whilst nucleases nucleotidases and phosphatases (acidic as well as alkaline phosphatases) were less characterized (Matsui et al.
Anticoagulant effect of Naja naja venom 5' nucleotidase: demonstration through the use of novel specificinhibitor vanillic acid.
SGPT, Serum Bile acid, GGPT and Serum nucleotidases
This protein can release 3',5',8-OH-dGDP (from modified DNA), which may subsequently be hydrolyzed to 8-OH-dGuo by nucleotidases
Intracellularly, ATP is stored at very high levels (from 5 to 10mmol/l), which can quickly be degraded by ubiquitous extracellular nucleotidases
after connecting to specific receptors under physiological conditions.
The distribution of different nucleotidases
in the lymphoid tissues was then evaluated in situ by a lead precipitation method.
The lysates from nontransfected COS-7 cells exhibited less than 5% of the ATP or ADP hydrolysis generated by lysates from COS-7 cells transfected with either NTPDases' expressing plasmid and as such the activity of the contaminating nucleotidases
was considered negligible.
Other forms of 5prime nucleotidase
be present in the cytoplasm and lysosomes and can be illustrious from ecto-NT5 by their substrate affinities, requirement for divalent magnesium ion, activation by ATP, and inhibition by inorganic phosphate.
Webster, "Lymphocyte purine 5 nucleotidase
deficiency in primary hypogammaglobulinaemia," The Lancet, vol.