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2015) of common genes (A) and biological pathways (B) for the three different protein reactivity classes MA = Michael acceptors; SB = Schiff base formation; SN = bi-molecular nucleophilic substitution/nucleophilic aromatic substitution.
Reaction then proceeds by the nucleophilic attack of oxirane ring by the primary amine groups formed to result in crosslinked structure.
The preparation of these glycosyl donors necessitates laborious tasks including the protection of all of the hydroxy groups, the regioselective introduction of a bromine or chlorine into the anomeric center under acidic conditions, the nucleophilic substitution of these halogen atoms by, for example, p-nitrophenol or fluorine atom, and the removal of the protecting groups (Fig.
The following conserved motifs are present: (1) catalytic triad, (2) nucleophilic elbow, (3) a flap covering active site of Leu 226-Ile257, (4) beta9 loop, (5) beta5 loop and (6) Oxyanion hole (Fig.
The synthesis of new polymer VALPOx with active carboxylic acid moiety was achieved via conventional aromatic nucleophilic substitution polymerization technique from 4,4,-bis(4-hydroxyphenyl) valeric acid and 2,5-bis(4-fluorophenyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazole; the polycondensation was carried out at elevated temperature in NMP/toluene azeotrope in presence of anhydrous pulverised potassium carbonate as catalyst.
Carbon is electrophilic, and oxygen is nucleophilic," says Fontaine.
The first mechanistic proposal for the process of phase-transfer catalysis was formulated by Starks [1, 3] for a liquid-liquid system (LL-PTC) using a nucleophilic substitution reaction (Scheme 1).
In this review, we discuss the chemical nature of ACR (a soft electrophile) and how this determines the corresponding sites of protein adduction (soft nucleophilic sulfhydryl thiolates on cysteine residues).
Morpholine undergoes most chemical reactions typical for other secondary amines, though the presence of the ether oxygen withdraws electron density from the nitrogen, rendering it less nucleophilic (and less basic) than structurally similar secondary amines such as piperidine.
More importantly, nitration of gammaT at the nucleophilic 5-position, which proceeded in both liposomes and human low density lipoprotein at yields of approximately 50% and approximately 75%, respectively, was not affected by the presence of alphaT.
Nucleophilic sites involving primary amino group within the PVAmHCl molecule are of particular value for achieving salt free dyeing of lyocell with reactive dyes.
AG is a nucleophilic compound that traps reactive carbonyl intermediates partially inhibiting carboxy methyl lysine and carbxy ethyl lysine.