Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a common and largely avoidable disease that is characterized by irreversible airway obstruction, predominantly due to inhaled noxae
We chose cord blood-derived MSCs (CB-MSCs) as a model cell type, since CB-MSCs are more proliferative, not senescent, and have not been subjected to exogenous noxae
The immune-mediated process is hypothetically induced by different noxae
(trauma, toxin, or infectious agents) which lead to the exposure of connective tissue or cell membrane self-epitopes in genetically susceptible individuals.
The increase in nitric oxide may contribute to the increased sensitivity to mucosal noxae
in PHG .
The final goal of inflammation is healing, elimination of the external or internal inflammation noxae
, and the restoration of homeostasis.
In general, all noxae
able to induce inflammation of the olfactory epithelium (OE) appear particularly detrimental to the olfactory function: reactive intermediates (e.g., reactive oxygen intermediates--ROIs) exhibit a significant toxic effect to the olfactory receptors either directly or indirectly [5-7,9-11].
(8) Further, ancient Greeks and Roman city states used extradition agreements, which relied on the concept of noxae
acting on the cornea were shown to transform the structural and ultrastructural morphology of the basal cells, which become darker with more condensed chromatin and cytoplasm and wider intercellular spaces.