Thuja occidentalis

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Related to northern white cedar: Thuja occidentalis, Thuja plicata, Eastern white cedar


Herbal medicine
Thuja occidentalis. A tree the leaves and twigs of which contain flavonoids, glycosides, mucilage and volatile oils (primarily thujone, but also borneol, camphor, fenchone, limonene, myrcene and pinene). Thuja is anthelmintic, expectorant, and stimulates smooth muscle; it was used by Native Americans to stimulate menstruation, and has been used topically by Western herbalists for skin infections and for rheumatic pain.
A remedy used for brittle nails, caries, menstrual dysfunction, oily skin and warts.
Chinese medicine
Thuja orientalis, see there.
Thuja occidentalis essential oil of thuja (white cedar); powerful topical astringent used for verruca treatment (see Table 1)
Table 1: Factors that should be considered in the use of chemical cauterizing agents to destroy verrucae
Lesion siteSuperficial lesion, non-weight-bearing skin - use liquid caustics
20% salicylic acid in collodion
Trichloroacetic acid, saturated solution (+75% sliver nitrate)
Deeper lesion, weight-bearing skin, good fibrofatty padding - either liquid or solid caustics
Monochloroacetic acid, saturated solution
40-70% salicylic acid ointment
Number and size of lesionsLarge lesions: ointment-based caustics
40-70% salicylic acid ointment Smaller and satellite lesions: caustic solutions
Alternating layers of trichloroacetic acid, saturated solution and 75% silver nitrate
Skin textureSweaty or hyperhidrotic skin
Padding cannot be retained in situ
Fair skin or atopic individuals; atrophic or dry skin
Tend to overreact/undergo tissue breakdown, to applied caustics
CirculationReduced arterial supply (diabetes, atherosclerosis)
Caustics may cause ulceration or predispose to infection as healing response is depressed (use astringents or mild keratolytics)
Impaired venous or lymphatic drainage (oedematous tissues)
Avoid strong caustics (use astringent agents or mild keratolytics)
NeuropathyImpaired pain awareness (as in diabetic neuropathy)
Do not use caustics (use astringents or mild keratolytics)
AvailabilityStrong acids should not be used unless both practitioner and patient are available for emergency appointments
Caustics may not be treatment of choice if patient cannot return weekly for ongoing treatments (consider a 'one-off' treatment, e.g. cryotherapy)
Opt for self-applied milder, topical ongoing treatments, if in patient's best interests
AgeStrong caustics should be avoided in young patients with a low pain threshold
Caustics that require padding to be retained in situ between treatments may be contraindicated in patients who cannot keep foot dry (e.g. swimmers)
Previous treatmentsIt is pointless continuing with a treatment that has already proved to be ineffective, or has caused an adverse reaction
Single treatmentsVerrucae pedis do not often respond to a single treatment, but methods include:
• Cryotherapy (application of liquid nitrogen, optimally every 3 weeks; ice ball must extend beyond lesion edge; contraindicated in patients with peripheral vascular disease)
• Electrosurgery (peripheral tissues must also be removed in order to clear all virally infected cells; requires local anaesthesia; contraindicated in patients with peripheral vascular disease or those with an indwelling pacemaker)
Alternative treatmentsAlternative treatments may be indicated for cases that have not responded to other forms of treatment: many of these therapies have not been tested by formal research
Thuja tincture: painted on lesion once or twice a day
Kalanchoe leaves: fleshy leaves split open and fleshy pulp left in situ on lesion; changed every 24-48 hours
Tea tree oil: painted on lesion daily, and covered
Banana skin: small piece of banana skin cut to size of lesion and strapped in place, pith side against lesion; changed every 24-48 hours
References in periodicals archive ?
Northern white cedar is not recruiting new stems into the canopy in the Great Divide District of the Chequamegon-Nicolet National Forest.
Northern white cedar has limited seed dispersal capabilities (Johnston, 1977; Johnston, 1990), so a nearby concentration of mature trees is essential for initial seedling establishment (Heitzman et al.
2002) found that the amount of light was only significant for their smallest size class (similar in height to our large seedlings), our results are not surprising because northern white cedar is known to have a plastic growth response when canopy gaps are created by small-scale logging, windthrow or other disturbances (Scott and Murphy, 1987; Heitzman et al.
Our results contribute to the understanding of the factors explaining the lack of recruitment in northern white cedar stands.
Factors "affecting the regeneration of northern white cedar in lowland forests of the Upper Great Lakes region, U.
Current forests throughout the entire district are primarily comprised of red maple, northern white cedar, sugar maple and spruces (Table 3).
Changes over the entire Luce District were characterized by the increase of red maple (+14%), jack pine (+4%) and northern white cedar (+3%) accompanied by the decline of tamarack (-11%), hemlock (-7%), white pine (-6%), beech (-5%) and yellow birch (-5%).
ha in northern white cedar stands, while basal area ranged from 3.

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