Respiratory rate (starting with 12 breaths/min) was adjusted to keep normocapnia
and ETC[O.sub.2] between 35-45 mmHg.
Considering the significant predictors of bleeding (duration of surgery and severity of sinonasal disease), normocapnia
and the efficacy of the surgical technique and the local decongestants (33), preventing haemodynamic adverse effects may be preferable to maintaining meticulous control of the haemodynamic parameters.
The patient's ventilation was controlled to maintain normocapnia
of EtCO2 between 28-32 mmHg.
evaluated the hemodynamic response to tracheal intubation between normocapnia
and hypercapnia ventilation before tracheal intubation.
One-lung ventilation does not result in cerebral desaturation during application of lung protective strategy if normocapnia
Sudden changes in C[O.sub.2] level (from hypercapnia to normocapnia
or hypocapnia) during ECMO initiation can induce sudden decrement in CBF resulting in brain injury.
In the further course of treatment, the blood gas analyses revealed persistent hypercapnia with a [P.sub.a]C[O.sub.2] of approximately 60-65 mmHg, and even though the sweep gas flow was increased, a state of normocapnia
could not be achieved.
Respiratory rate was adjusted to achieve normocapnia
(pC[O.sub.2] 35-40 mmHg) and end-tidal carbon dioxide was measured with an infrared absorption analyzer.
Akin to human infants, a very high level of plasma copeptin (a part of pro-AVP) is seen following asphyxia but, notably, the copeptin levels remain low with graded restoration of normocapnia
. Moreover, intravenous AVP V1a receptor antagonists, acting on the BBB, block the generation of seizures.
(EtC[O.sub.2] between 43 and 56 mmHg) was achieved through mechanical ventilation during anesthesia in this case, which would have prevented potential increases in CBF and ICP and offered some protection against further brain injury.
Tracheal intubation was done, and mechanical ventilation using air and oxygen was started to maintain normocapnia
. After that central venus catheter (CVP) was inserted in the right internal jugular vein in all patients.
Ventilation rate and tidal volume were adjusted to maintain normocapnia
(35–45 mmHg, 1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) by adjusting respiratory frequency.