Despite considerable progress advancing toward standards-based assessments, many medical educators remain heavily influenced by the long history of norm-referenced
examinations and "normative thinking" in medical education.
The program was implemented for the 1989-1990 school year and consisted of a customized achievement test which provided both norm-referenced
(NRT) and criterion-referenced (CRT) data for students in grades 1-8 in reading/language, mathematics, science and social studies.
It is a leader in norm-referenced
and custom state assessment programs, and pioneered successful testing programs in the adult education and language proficiency assessment markets.
To enroll a tax credit scholarship student, private schools would have to be accredited and annually administer a national norm-referenced
The introductory chapter outlines the issues that influence the needs of bilingual children in the US, followed by chapters on cross-language transfer, including how the structure of a native language affects second language acquisition and the biological bases of normative and aberrant language development, and specific types of assessment: the use of norm-referenced
measures, response to intervention techniques, social-emotional evaluation in a bilingual-bicultural context, and reading and writing assessment.
For example, raw scores and percentage-correct scores can be used to describe the student's current level of mastery, whereas norm-referenced
scores, such as age- and grade-equivalent scores, standard scores, and percentiles, can be used to describe the student's performance relative to her same-age peers.
All that one can say from norm-referenced
results is that a client's interest in X relative to the population is greater than the client's interest in Y relative to the population.
The treatment was the individual administration of a norm-referenced
measure of reading accompanied by direct observations.
approach measures the product or outcome of the performance, while the criterion-referenced approach focuses on the form or technique of the movement, in other words, how the skill is performed.
A construction and development of the test is, therefore, different from a norm-referenced
Kentucky's new system will narrow the subjects to be tested, eliminate a current writing portfolio, and add a norm-referenced
test to "give parents and policymakers a measure of how individual students are performing against the national average.
One big change was that off-the-shelf tests, such as norm-referenced
tests, were replaced by custom-developed tests designed to measure the state standards.