At this moment, it is not possible to provide a plausible answer whether reduced BChE activity results from the presumably reduced level of the nonneuronal
acetylcholine or is actually an underlying cause.
Recently, the changes in the function of nonneuronal
cells, especially microglia, during neuropathic pain conditions were postulated to be the reason behind the disrupted actions of opioids [25, 27, 29, 30, 52].
However, all these therapeutic effects could have been due to positive "nonneuronal
effects" rather than direct neurogenesis from MSCs.
Although our study did not identify specific cell types implicated in the anti-inflammatory results of [alpha]7nAChR agonism, one can assume that neuronal (to a lesser extent) and nonneuronal
cells (astrocytes, microglia, and endothelial cells) are implicated in this function, according to the cells' ability to produce inflammatory mediators.
Interestingly, the production of intracellular A[beta] from wild-type APP695 appears to be a unique characteristic of postmitotic neurons, since intracellular A[beta] was not detected in several nonneuronal
cell lines .
In support of pharmacological evidence for the existence of GlyR in nonneuronal
cells stated above, recent studies provide molecular evidence for the GlyR in nonneuronal
While further experimental validation including proteomics and TCF/LEF transcription factor occupancy at a genomewide level (ChIP-seq) is needed to confirm these potential candidates as Wnt/[beta]-catenin targets in neuronal and nonneuronal
cells, we note that none of the early Wnt3a-upregulated genes seems to be the result of downstream transcription factors or secondary transcriptional waves (Supplementary Figure 3c).
In recent years, researchers have discovered two polarization states of microglial cells when they are activated, the M1 phenotype and the M2 phenotype [8-11], exactly like macrophages in nonneuronal
While the disease progression in ALS is a result of slow and progressive dysfunction and loss of motor neurons, other nonneuronal
cells in the central nervous system (CNS) and peripheral nervous system (PNS), including the immune cells, play crucial roles [22,23].
As disease progresses, the number of nonneuronal
cells increased, the proteoglycans of extracellular matrix are reduced and the behavioral changes appear in absence of neuronal death [28, 29].
In addition, nonneuronal
cells (e.g., immune cells) may mediate the effects of this pharmacological blocker indirectly.
Bevensee, "pH regulation in nonneuronal
brain cells and interstitial fluid," Advances in Molecular and Cell Biology, vol.