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synovial fluid analysis

Lab medicine The evaluation of SF obtained by aspiration from the knee, shoulder, hip, elbow, less commonly from another joint; SFA is commonly performed on younger Pts to detect infection–eg,
with staphylococcus or TB and in older Pts to categorize type of inflammation–eg, rheumatoid arthritis, pseudogout, exclude gout
Synovial fluid analysis*
Type   Appearance  Glucose  WBC/mL PMNs Viscosity  
Normal Clear yellow < 10 mg/dL < 200/µL < 25% ↑
Noninflammatory  Clear yellow < 10 mg/dL < 2000/µL < 25% ↑
Inflammatory  Slightly turbid < 20 mg/dL <5000/µL < 50% ↓
Septic-mild Turbid < 40 mg/dL <50,000/µL  50-90% ↓
Septic-severe Turbid/purulent> 20 mg/dL >50,000/µL > 90% ↓
*after JB Henry, Ed, Clinical Diagnosis & Management by Laboratory Methods, 18th edition, WB Saunders, 1991
‡Synovial fluid and blood difference
McGraw-Hill Concise Dictionary of Modern Medicine. © 2002 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.