non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs


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non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

A range of drugs with painkilling and inflammation-reducing properties that act by inhibiting the enzyme cyclo-oxygenase that converts the fatty acid arachidonic acid to PROSTAGLANDINS. The latter are a common cause of pain and the inhibition of their production relieves pain, but prostaglandins also have desirable effects, hence some of the unwanted side-effects of NSAIDs. Long-term use of these drugs has been found to be associated with a reduced incidence of oral cancer but with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease. The range of NSAIDs includes ASPIRIN, BENORYLATE (benorilate), DIFLUNISAL, FENBUFEN, FENOPROFEN, IBUPROFEN, NAPROXEN, DICLOFENAC, INDOMETHACIN (indometacin), PHENLYBUTAZONE and PIROXICAM.

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

Aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and many others.
Mentioned in: Mastocytosis

non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs

; NSAIDs group of anti-inflammatory and analgesic drugs that include aspirin, propionic acid derivatives (e.g. ibuprofen, fenbrufen, ketoprofen) and similar drugs (e.g. diclofenac, difusinal, etodolac, indometacin, meloxicam, prioxicam, sulindac, ketorolac and mefenamic acid); action: NSAIDs suppress inflammation and pain by inhibiting the cyclooxygenase pathway and preventing release of inflammatory mediators (e.g. prostacyclins, prostaglandins and thromboxanes); used to control acute inflammation and pain (e.g. soft-tissue or bone injury), chronic inflammation (e.g. associated with osteo- or rheumatoid arthritis); side-effects of long-term use include reduced healing, compromised immunity, increased susceptibility to infections, epidermal atrophy (thinning of skin), peripheral oedema, bruising and bleeding tendency (i.e. antiplatelet effect), gastric irritation and/or ulceration, tinnitus and anaemia (secondary to gastrointestinal bleeding) (Table 1); NSAIDs are contraindicated in ischaemic heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, peripheral arterial disease and heart failure; patients with angina or ischaemic heart disease, or those at risk of cerebrovascular accident (stroke) are advised to take 75mg aspirin daily; NSAIDs alone may be inadequate to control postoperative pain (see Table 2)
Table 1: The range of side-effects of long-term non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication
SystemEffect
GastrointestinalNausea; dyspepsia; diarrhoea; peptic ulceration or perforation; bleeding
RenalFluid retention; peripheral oedema; renal failure; papillary necrosis; interstitial fibrosis
RespiratoryBronchoconstriction; pulmonary eosinophilia; alveolitis
CoagulationReduced platelet aggregation; increased bleeding time; easy bruising
SkinSevere allergic reactions (e.g. Stevens-Johnson syndrome); toxic epidermal necrolysis; angioedema; skin thinning; reduced healing
VisceralCongestive heart failure; hepatitis; pancreatitis; aseptic meningitis
Table 2: The range of side-effects of long-term non-steroidal anti- inflammatory drug (NSAID) medication
SystemEffect
GastrointestinalNausea; dyspepsia; diarrhoea; peptic ulceration or perforation; bleeding
RenalFluid retention; peripheral oedema; renal failure; papillary necrosis; interstitial fibrosis
RespiratoryBronchoconstriction; pulmonary eosinophilia; alveolitis
CoagulationReduced platelet aggregation; increased bleeding time; easy bruising
SkinSevere allergic reactions (e.g. Stevens-Johnson syndrome); toxic epidermal necrolysis; angioedema; skin thinning; reduced healing
VisceralCongestive heart failure; hepatitis; pancreatitis; aseptic meningitis
References in periodicals archive ?
Cardiovascular risk needs to be taken into account when prescribing any non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.
Dr Kerry Kuehl, a sports medicine specialist at the university, said: "Our research suggests that tart cherry juice may work like common non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, used by millions to treat pain and inflammation after exercise.
The task force concluded that increased risk for stroke, intestinal bleeding or kidney failure from taking more than 300 mg daily of aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs outweighed the possible benefits of colorectal cancer prevention.
Previous studies had suggested that the medicines, called non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), could help prevent several types of cancer.
The first two issues include feature articles and regular columns on such topics as side effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, facilitating better patient/provider relationships, misperceptions about osteoarthritis, alternative therapies for chronic pain, HIPAA compliance and treating rheumatoid arthritis.
18 FDA Regulatory actions for the COX-2 Selective and Non-Selective Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs.
The scientists found during interviews that the study volunteers without cancer were about twice as likely as the cancer patients to have regularly used non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), such as aspirin or ibuprofen, during the previous 6 months.
Two popular non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) failed to slow dementia in a study of 351 patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease.
Prostaglandins may be involved in the physiologic response to exercise; some data suggests a lower risk of bleeding in runners taking non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS).
Risk of hyponatremia is higher among females, runners using non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (like aspirin or ibuprofen), and runners who finish in four hours or more.
At least 20 elderly people in Birmingham die from stomach bleeds caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) each year, according to Dr Whittington.

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