Nominals with ambiguous bases (either nouns or verbs), as in (4a), as well as nominals generated out of word groups or phrases (4b) can be found in any period.
We will concentrate on the discussion of unambiguous deverbal and denominal -er-nominals in the presentation of our corpus data in Section 4.2, thus neglecting masculine (5a) and pleonastic marking (5b), as well as nominals with other than nominal or verbal bases (3e-3g), ambiguous -er-nominals (4a), and nominals with bound stems (4c).
To be sure, even if names of origin were subtracted from the corpus, the general decrease of the nominal base remains to be observed, but its decline would start at a remarkably smaller quota of 35.5% denominal nominals and fall to 22.2% in 2000.
There is a rather small but continuous increase of OBJECT nominals from 1609 (0.7%) until 1850 (6.3%), followed by a sudden jump up to 13.0% in 1900, and 12.1% in 1950.
When students learn about numbers and their applications, they usually learn the distinction between cardinal and ordinal numbers but often miss hearing about nominal numbers.
Any use of a number as a name is its nominal form, such as file numbers, identity numbers, most coding numbers, and numbers assigned to telephone lines, car registrations, and many other numerical aspects of modern life [ILLUSTRATION FOR FIGURE 1 OMITTED].
The ubiquity of nominal numbers in children's lives requires that we notice the nominal form of numbers, especially to distinguish clearly between cardinal-number concepts and nominal-number names.
Apart from their use in counting, and unlike cardinals, nominal numbers have no real mathematical meaning and cannot be compared or used in calculations.
Thus, besteigen `to climb (on)', beengen `to cramp' (based on Enge `narrowness'), bekronen `to crown' (based on Krone `crown'), etc., allow the derivation of -ung nominals. On the other hand, there are also many other be-prefix verbs, such as befahren `to drive on', benassen `to wet', and bekreuzen `to make the sign of the cross over', for which the relevant dictionaries do not register event-denoting -ung nominals.
All -ung nominals discussed so far are derived from prefix verbs.
The preceding discussion has made clear that most, though not all, -ung nominals are derived from verbs that denote a change of state and belong to the class of event verbs.
Consequently, the question of whether it is possible to specify a terminating point of the transition seems to be crucial for the existence of an event-denoting -ung nominals: it is not the categorial status of the underlying stem as such -- adjective or noun on the one hand, verb on the other -- that matters, but the fact that the temporal properties described by them are different.