Inhibition of protein phosphatases by microcystis and nodularin
associated with hepatotoxicity.
Growth, nitrogen fixation, and nodularin
production by two Baltic Sea cyanobacteria.
Indeed, the evidence that microcystin is a potent tumor promoter and that nodularin
(another cynanobacterial hepatotoxin) is a liver carcinogen in rat liver (Ohta et al.
microcystin or nodularin
, which are toxins of blue-green algae) (11,12).
Blooms can affect the water quality, as indicated by changes in pH, transparency, and biodiversity, and produce a variety of toxins including microcystin, nodularin
, and ana-toxina.
Nodularia spumigena has been found responsible for the toxicity of the blooms and the toxin involved has been nodularin
, a hepatotoxic cyclic pentapeptide (Anon.
Production and specificity of monoclonal antibodies against nodularin
conjugated through N-methyldehydrobutyrine.
Several PP1 and PP2A inhibitors, such as okadaic acid, nodularin
, and microcystin-LR, are classified as tumor promoters (Fujiki and Suganuma 1999).
Pure MC-LR and nodularin
can be oxidized within seconds to minutes (Rositano et al.
In vitro and in vive effects of protein phosphatase inhibitors, microcystin and nodularin
, on mouse skin and fibroblasts.
Microcystins and nodularin
, toxins produced by cyanobacteria that are present in eutrophic water, have been linked to liver and other cancers.
The antibodies used in the assay were most specific for MCYST-LR (100%) and arginine--arginine variant (MCYST-RR; 126%), with some cross-reactivity with tyrosine--arginine variant (MCYST-YR; 65%) and nodularin