Transduction: This is the phase at which afferent nerve endings translate the energy from noxious stimuli into nociceptive impulses.
Transmission: During this stage, the nociceptive impulses are conveyed from the peripheral site of injury to the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and from there to the brain.
Modulation: This is the process by which the nociceptive impulses are either inhibited or amplified, with input from both the ascending and descending pathways.
The translation of noxious stimuli into nociceptive impulses
The phase in which nociceptive impulses are conveyed from the site of injury to the dorsal horn of the spine and then to the brain