The major bioflavonoids found in citrus fruits are diosmin, diosmetin, hesperidin, hesperetin, naringin, naringenin, narirutin, neohesperidin, nobiletin
, tangeretin, eriodictyol, and eriocitrin.
Pan et al., "Antimicrobial activity of nobiletin
and tangeretin against Pseudomonas," Food Chemistry, vol.
 used a HPLC-PDA method to identify 8 components (rutin, narirutin, naringin, hesperidin, neohesperidin, poncirin, nobiletin
, and tangeretin) in FA, but this method was unreasonably time-consuming (60 min).
Xiang et al., "Nobiletin
attenuates cardiac dysfunction, oxidative stress, and inflammatory in streptozotocin: induced diabetic cardiomyopathy," Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol.
Similarly, the flavonoid nobiletin
(25, 50, and 100 mg/kg, p.o.), isolated from citrus peels, produces antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim and tail suspension tests in male ICR mice.
The TCMF consists of calycosin, liquiritin, eucommiol, 6-gingerol, ursolic acid, atractyloside, glycyrrhizic acid, chlorogenic acid, salidroside, nobiletin
, and specnuezhenide effective ingredients.
(40) reported that flavonoids tangeretin and nobiletin
effectively inhibited NF-[kappa]B activation and histamine action following histamine-stimulation in mice.
The findings suggested that the citric acid contains a chemical nobiletin
, which in animal tests has shown to slow or reverse impairment of memory.
, a polymethoxylated flavone from citrus peels, improves cAMP/protein kinase A/extraceullar signal-regulated kinase/cAMP response element-binding protein signaling in cultured hippocampal neurons and ameliorates A[beta]-induced memory impairment in AD model rats.
Kuo, "Hesperidin, nobiletin
, and tangeretin are collectively responsible for the anti-neuroinflammatory capacity of tangerine peel (Citri reticulatae pericarpium)," Food and Chemical Toxicology, vol.
Many other studies have been carried out to enhance oral bioavailability and therapeutic effect of other plant active compounds, including apigenin, berberine hydrochloride (BBH), puerarin, hesperidin, quercetin, curcumin, baicalin, oleanolic acid, vinpocetine, nobiletin
, oridonin, and silymarin.
(5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexametoxyflavone, NOB) is a citrus polymethoxylated flavone that possesses an extensive range of health benefits among others, including antioxidant activity, glucose regulation, and fat metabolism .