The various classes of antibacterial drug included in this report are beta-lactams, macrolides, aminoglycosides, phenicols, quinolones, folate antagonists, tetracyclines, and other miscellaneous agents, which include glycopeptides, nitroimidazoles
, lincosamides, lipopeptides, nicotinic acid derivatives, and polypeptide antibiotics.
Since the introduction of metronidazole in 1959, nitroimidazoles
have been the main treatment for giardiasis.
Seventeen pharmaceuticals--including 11 human and veterinary antibiotics (macrolides, sulfonamides, thiamphenicol, nitroimidazoles
, trimethoprim), 2 nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (salicylic acid, diclofenac), a [beta]-blocker (metoprolol), a lipid regulator (clofibric acid), a psychoactive stimulant (caffeine), and an anticonvulsant (carbamazepine)--were quantified (Figure 1).
Typical analytes include Beta-blockers and Beta-agonists, Riboflavin (vitamin B2), triazine herbicides, antibiotics, tobacco specific by-products, amphetamines, fluoroquinolones, nitroimidazoles
Evaluation of the mutagenic and genotoxic activities of 48 nitroimidazoles
and related imidazole derivates by the Ames test and the SOS chromotest.
130,131) A shorter duration of therapy has been shown to be efficacious with metronidazole, and other nitroimidazoles
such as tinidazole or ornidazole are effective; however, the latter agents are not available in the United States.
Selective type I photooxidations in mixtures of porphyrins and electrophilic nitroimidazoles
for the treatment of TB: past, present and future Tathagata Mukherjee, Helena Boshoff
vaginalis isolates for which MLCs of nitroimidazoles
were as low as 12.
Developed empirically over three decades ago, the currently available drugs nitrofurans and nitroimidazoles
, are unsatisfactory due to frequent toxic side-effects and limited efficacy, particularly in the prevalent chronic form of the disease.
The portfolio includes, among others, a program to advance novel nitroimidazoles
, several projects in the fluoroquinolone class of compounds, and earlier discovery projects based on new targets.
The TB Alliance has built a library of nitroimidazoles
in pursuit of developing the class for TB.