nitrogen dioxide


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Related to nitrogen dioxide: Nitrogen monoxide

nitrogen dioxide (NO2)

a brownish irritating gas that can be released from silage and the reaction of nitric acid with metals. It may produce symptoms of pulmonary damage in workers who perform ensilage tasks. Some studies indicate that measurable changes in pulmonary function occur when healthy individuals are exposed to NO2 concentrations of two to three parts per million.

nitrogen dioxide

NO2, a toxic greenhouse gas, produced primarily by the combustion of fossil fuels. It is a powerful oxidant that can cause lung injury when inhaled at high concentrations.
CAS # 10102-44-0
See also: nitrogen

nitrogen dioxide

A toxic oxide of nitrogen that in concentrations of over about 100 parts per million will cause irritation of the nose and throat, watering of the eyes, cough, headache, and nausea and vomiting. UK occupational exposure safe limits are 5 ppm for 15 minutes and 3 ppm for an 8 hour day.

nitrogen

a chemical element, atomic number 7, atomic weight 14.007, symbol N. See Table 6. It is a gas constituting about four-fifths of common air; chemically it is almost inert. It is not poisonous but is fatal if breathed alone because of oxygen deprivation. Nitrogen occurs in proteins and amino acids and is thus present in all living cells.

nitrogen balance
the state of the body in regard to the rate of protein intake and protein utilization. When protein is metabolized, about 90% of the protein nitrogen is excreted in the urine in the form of urea, uric acid, creatinine and other nitrogen end products. The remaining 10% of the nitrogen is eliminated in the feces.
A negative nitrogen balance occurs when more protein is utilized by the body than is taken in. A positive nitrogen balance implies a net gain of protein in the body. Negative nitrogen balance can be caused by such factors as malnutrition, debilitating diseases, blood loss and glucocorticoids. A positive balance can be caused by exercise, growth hormone and testosterone.
blood urea nitrogen (BUN)
see urea nitrogen.
nitrogen dioxide
see nitric oxide.
nitrogen fixation
conversion of atmospheric nitrogen into organic nitrogenous compounds by bacteria which may be symbiotic, e.g. Rhizopus spp., which grow on the roots of legumes and put those plants in an advantageous position with respect to nonlegumes.
nitrogen-free extract (NFE)
consists of carbohydrates, sugars, starches, and a major portion of the hemicellulose in feeds. Calculated when crude protein, fat, water, ash, and the fiber are added and the sum is subtracted from 100.
nitrogen mustards
a group of toxic, blistering alkylating agents homologous to dichlorodiethyl sulfide (mustard gas), some of which have been used as antineoplastics. The group includes mustine hydrochloride, cyclophosphamide, thiotepa, chlorambucil and melphalan.
nonprotein nitrogen (NPN)
1. the nitrogenous constituents of the blood exclusive of the protein bodies, consisting of the nitrogen of urea, uric acid, creatine, creatinine, amino acids, polypeptides, and an undetermined part known as rest nitrogen.
Measurement of nonprotein nitrogen is used as a test of renal function, but has been largely replaced by measurement of specific substances, e.g. urea and creatinine.
2. also used in relation to feeds and refers to those nitrogen-containing constituents which are not proteins, e.g. nucleic acids, amino sugars, urea, etc.
nitrogen trichloride
nitrogen washout test
measures the rate at which the nitrogen concentration in the expired air is reduced when the horse is made to breathe pure oxygen. The rate is less in incompetent lungs, e.g. those affected by emphysema.
References in periodicals archive ?
In the measurements with the feed of air or of nitrogen dioxide gas is fed directly into the open cuvette to the middle of height at a rate of 2 l/h.
Data from the records also revealed that men experienced a 25 percent increase in the odds of suicide following short-term exposure to nitrogen dioxide and a 6 percent increase in the odds of suicide following short-term exposure to fine particulate matter.
Breathing easier The amount of nitrogen dioxide hovering over major U.
Fossil fuels are the primary source of both fine particulate matter and nitrogen dioxide.
Nitrogen dioxide leads to the formation of ground-level ozone, causing major respiratory problems and premature death, with city-dwellers particularly at risk in the face of high levels of traffic.
Nitrogen dioxide levels averaged 53 micrograms per cubic meter, and reached as high as 67 in the most polluted areas of central Beirut.
The authors found that the reductions in nitrogen dioxide and ozone exposure--and the consequent health benefits--associated with reducing nitrogen oxide emissions varied substantially across North America.
For carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, current standard and guideline thresholds are presented (Table 1).
Existing nitrogen dioxide analyzers are based on chemiluminescence.
In this study, we found that prenatal exposures to airborne particles and the pollutant nitrogen dioxide adversely affect pulmonary function growth among asthmatic children between 6 and 15 years of age," said study lead author Amy Padula, PhD, post-doctoral fellow at the University of California, Berkeley.
Exxon Mobil, the parent of Esso, Mobil and ExxonMobil companies around the world, has reported the release of an unknown amount of nitrogen dioxide, Reuters has reported, citing a filing with regulators.
Environmental Protection Agency sets air quality standards for six "criteria" pollutants--carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, particulate matter less than 10 microns in size ([PM.