nitazoxanide


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nitazoxanide

Alinia

Pharmacologic class: Antiprotozoal

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Impedes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction, which is essential to anaerobic energy metabolism

Availability

Oral suspension: 100 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 500 mg

Indications and dosages

Diarrhea caused by Giardia lamblia or Cryptosporidium parvum

Adults and children ages 12 and older: 500 mg (tablet or 25 ml suspension) P.O. every 12 hours with food for 3 days

Children ages 4 to 11: 200 mg (10 ml suspension) P.O. every 12 hours with food for 3 days

Children ages 1 to 3: 100 mg (5 ml suspension) P.O. every 12 hours with food for 3 days

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or its components

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal, hepatic, or biliary disease or dysfunction; immunodeficiency (including human immunodeficiency virus); diabetes mellitus (suspension)

• concurrent use of warfarin or other highly plasma protein-bound drugs

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children younger than age 11 (tablets) or age 1 (suspension).

Administration

• Give with food.

• Because a single tablet contains more nitazoxanide than recommended for pediatric dosing, don't give tablets to children younger than age 11.

• Keep suspension container tightly closed and shake well before each use. Suspension may be stored for 7 days; after that, discard unused portion.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain

Interactions

Drug-drug. Warfarin and other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic index: competition for binding sites, resulting in increased nitazoxanide blood level and efficacy

Patient monitoring

• Monitor renal and liver function tests frequently in patients with renal, hepatic, or biliary dysfunction.

• Monitor blood glucose levels in diabetic patients taking oral suspension.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take drug with food.

• Inform diabetic patient that oral suspension contains sucrose.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs mentioned above.

nitazoxanide

an antiprotozoal agent used to treat diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia.

nitazoxanide

A synthetic salicylamide derivative and antiprotozoal that is active against Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia infection, and which appears to also have activity against hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

nitazoxanide

A thiazolide anti-infective drug used to treat diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum , Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica , Blastocystis hominis , Clostridium difficile and rotavirus.
References in periodicals archive ?
The only available medicine for the illness, Nitazoxanide, has demonstrated poor efficacy when used in the treatment of vulnerable infants and immune-compromised patients.
EFFECTIVENESS OF NITAZOXANIDE FOR Giardia spp IN KENNEL OF CALDAS, ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA
Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting school children in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide.
The antimicrobials tested in this study were: metronidazole (Sigma-Aldrich), moxifloxacin (Sigma-Aldrich), nitazoxanide (Farmoquimica), teicoplanin (Sigma-Aldrich), tigecycline (Pfizer), and vancomycin (Sigma-Aldrich).
After some improvement, the patient was discharged home and instructed to complete therapy with nitazoxanide and ciprofloxacin.
Shafi, First- derivative UV-Spectrophotometric Determination of Nitazoxanide in Pharmaceutical Formulations, J.
2003) studied the in vitro parasiticidal effect of nitazoxanide (NTZ) on Echino coccus multilocularis metacestodes using electron microscopy.
Metronidazole, cotrimoxazole or nitazoxanide have been shown to successfully eradicate Blastocystis hominis from stool specimens and also relieve symptoms related to irritable bowel syndrome.
These include praziquantel, ivermectin, pyrantel pamoate, albendazole, nitazoxanide, and iodoquinol.
In one study, the H pylori eradication rate for a 7-day course of LOAD therapy--levofloxacin and doxycydine taken once a day, omeprazole before breakfast, and nitazoxanide twice daily--was 90% vs 73.
Prevalence of intestinal protozoa infection among school-aged children on Pemba Island, Tanzania, and effect of single-dose albendazole, nitazoxanide and albendazole-nitazoxanide.