nitazoxanide


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nitazoxanide

Alinia

Pharmacologic class: Antiprotozoal

Therapeutic class: Anti-infective

Pregnancy risk category B

Action

Impedes pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase enzyme-dependent electron transfer reaction, which is essential to anaerobic energy metabolism

Availability

Oral suspension: 100 mg/5 ml

Tablets: 500 mg

Indications and dosages

Diarrhea caused by Giardia lamblia or Cryptosporidium parvum

Adults and children ages 12 and older: 500 mg (tablet or 25 ml suspension) P.O. every 12 hours with food for 3 days

Children ages 4 to 11: 200 mg (10 ml suspension) P.O. every 12 hours with food for 3 days

Children ages 1 to 3: 100 mg (5 ml suspension) P.O. every 12 hours with food for 3 days

Contraindications

• Hypersensitivity to drug or its components

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• renal, hepatic, or biliary disease or dysfunction; immunodeficiency (including human immunodeficiency virus); diabetes mellitus (suspension)

• concurrent use of warfarin or other highly plasma protein-bound drugs

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients

• children younger than age 11 (tablets) or age 1 (suspension).

Administration

• Give with food.

• Because a single tablet contains more nitazoxanide than recommended for pediatric dosing, don't give tablets to children younger than age 11.

• Keep suspension container tightly closed and shake well before each use. Suspension may be stored for 7 days; after that, discard unused portion.

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache

GI: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain

Interactions

Drug-drug. Warfarin and other highly plasma protein-bound drugs with narrow therapeutic index: competition for binding sites, resulting in increased nitazoxanide blood level and efficacy

Patient monitoring

• Monitor renal and liver function tests frequently in patients with renal, hepatic, or biliary dysfunction.

• Monitor blood glucose levels in diabetic patients taking oral suspension.

Patient teaching

• Instruct patient to take drug with food.

• Inform diabetic patient that oral suspension contains sucrose.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs mentioned above.

nitazoxanide

A synthetic salicylamide derivative and antiprotozoal that is active against Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia infection, and which appears to also have activity against hepatitis B and hepatitis C.

nitazoxanide

A thiazolide anti-infective drug used to treat diarrhoea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum , Giardia lamblia, Entamoeba histolytica , Blastocystis hominis , Clostridium difficile and rotavirus.
References in periodicals archive ?
Nitazoxanide: In vitro and in vivo drug effects against Trichuris muris and Ancylostoma ceylanicum, alone or in combination.
Fascioliasis and intestinal parasitoses affecting school children in Atlixco, Puebla State, Mexico: epidemiology and treatment with nitazoxanide. PLOS Negl Trop Dis 7: e2553.
Tenders are invited for Ph No.:12029 Nitazoxanide 200 Mg Plus Ofloxacin 200 Mg Tab
Nitazoxanide therapy in doses up to 2000mg/d is associated with improvement in symptoms of cryptosporidium related diarrhea.
In vitro and in vivo effect of nitazoxanide has been demonstrated using different animal models and finally in clinical trials.
In vitro activity of nitazoxanide and related compounds against isolates of Giardia intestinalis, Entamoeba histolytica and Trichomonas vaginalis.
Thereafter, the patient was treated with nitazoxanide (500 mg 2x/d for 7 days); however, fecal samples remained positive for F.
Other potentially effective strategies for recurrent CDI include vancomycin with adjunctive treatments, such as Saccharomyces boulardii, rifaximin "chaser" therapy after vancomycin, nitazoxanide, fecal transplantation, and intravenous immunoglobulin.
Nitazoxanide is a thiazolide anti-infective with activity against a number of protozoa, bacteria, and viruses.
Numerous novel HCV specific inhibitors such as nucleoside and non nucleoside polymerase inhibitors, protease inhibitors, as well as non HCV specific compounds with antiviral activity such as nitazoxanide, cyclophilin inhibitors (Debio 025), silibinin are under development in clinical trials.
Amadi B, Mwiya M, Musuku J, Watuka A, Sianongo S, Ayoub A, Kelly P (2002) Effect of nitazoxanide on morbidity and mortality in Zambian children with cryptosporidiosis: a randomised controlled trial.