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Pregnancy Category: B
Treatment of diarrhea due to Cryptosporidium parvum and Giardia lamblia.Not effective for C. Parvum diarrhea in HIV-infected patients.
Interferes with electron transfer reaction necessary for anaerobic energy metabolism of offending organisms.
Antiprotozoal action resulting in decreased diarrhea.
Absorption: Following oral administration, nitazoxanide is rapidly converted to tizoxanide which is the active metabolite; tizoxanide is further metabolized.
Protein Binding: >99%.
Metabolism and Excretion: Tizoxanide—excreted in urine, bile and feces; inactive metabolites excreted in urine, bile and feces.
Time/action profile (blood levels)
|PO||unknown†||1–4 hr||12 hr|
Contraindicated in: Hypersensitivity.
Use Cautiously in: Hepatic and/or renal impairment; Diabetics (contains 1.48 g sucrose/5 mL); Children <1 pregnancy or lactation (safety not established).
Adverse Reactions/Side Effects
Central nervous system
Ear, Eye, Nose, Throat
- yellow eye discoloration
- abdominal pain
- discolored urine
Drug-Drug interactionMay interact with other highly protein-bound drugs by competing for binding sites.
Oral (Adults and children ≥ 12 yr) 500 mg every 12 hr for 3 days.
Oral (Children 4–11 yr) 200 mg (10 mL) every 12 hr for 3 days.
Oral (Children 1–4 yr) 100 mg (5 mL) every 12 hr for 3 days.
Tablets: 500 mg
Oral suspensionstrawberry: 100 mg/5 mL in 60 mL bottle
- Assess frequency and consistency of stools and bowel sounds before and during therapy.
- Assess fluid and electrolyte balance and skin turgor for dehydration.
Potential Nursing DiagnosesDiarrhea (Indications)
- Oral: Administer with food. Keep container tightly closed and shake well before each administration. Suspension may be stored at room temperature for 7 days; discard unused portion.
- Pedi: Tablets contain more than pediatric dose; use solution for patients ≤12 years.
- Explain to parents administration of medication and monitoring of condition.
- Resolution of symptoms: no watery stools, no more than 2 soft stools within the past 24 hr and no unformed stools within the past 48 hr.
an antiprotozoal agent used to treat diarrhea caused by Cryptosporidium parvum or Giardia lamblia.