nimodipine


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nimodipine

 [ni-mo´dĭ-pēn]
a calcium channel blocking agent used as a vasodilator in the treatment of neurologic deficits associated with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured intracranial aneurysm; administered orally.
Miller-Keane Encyclopedia and Dictionary of Medicine, Nursing, and Allied Health, Seventh Edition. © 2003 by Saunders, an imprint of Elsevier, Inc. All rights reserved.

nimodipine

Nimotop

Pharmacologic class: Calcium channel blocker

Therapeutic class: Cerebral vasodilator

Pregnancy risk category C

FDA Box Warning

Don't give by I.V. or other parenteral route. Deaths and serious or life-threatening adverse events have occurred when capsule contents have been injected parenterally.

Action

Inhibits calcium transport into vascular smooth muscle cells, suppressing contractions; also dilates coronary and cerebral arteries

Availability

Capsules: 30 mg

Indications and dosages

Subarachnoid hemorrhage

Adults: 60 mg P.O. q 4 hours for 21 days. Therapy should start within 96 hours of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

Dosage adjustment

• Hepatic impairment

Contraindications

None

Precautions

Use cautiously in:

• hepatic impairment, hypotension

• elderly patients

• pregnant or breastfeeding patients (safety not established)

• children (safety not established).

Administration

• Give at least 1 hour before or 2 hours after meals. Don't let patient consume grapefruit or grapefruit juice within 1 hour before or 2 hours after dose.

• If patient can't swallow capsule, puncture it with sterile needle and empty contents into syringe. Administer through nasogastric tube, then flush with normal saline solution (30 ml).

Adverse reactions

CNS: headache, depression

CV: hypotension, peripheral edema, ECG abnormalities, bradycardia, tachycardia

GI: nausea, diarrhea, abdominal discomfort

Musculoskeletal: muscle cramps

Respiratory: dyspnea

Skin: acne, flushing, rash

Interactions

Drug-drug. Other calcium channel

blockers: enhanced cardiovascular effects

Drug-diagnostic tests. Liver function

tests: abnormal results

Drug-food. Any food: decreased drug blood level and effects

Grapefruit juice, grapefruit juice: increased drug blood level and effects

Drug-herbs. Ephedra (ma huang),

yohimbine: antagonism of nimodipine effects

St. John's wort: decreased drug blood level

Drug-behaviors. Alcohol use: increased hypotension

Patient monitoring

• Monitor weight and fluid intake and output. Stay alert for fluid retention.

• Assess neurologic status and mood, watching for signs of depression.

• Check vital signs and ECG.

Patient teaching

• Tell patient to complete full course of therapy (21 days).

• Advise patient to take on an empty stomach 1 hour before or 2 hours after a meal. Instruct him to not to consume grapefruit or grapefruit juice within 1 hour before or 2 hours after taking drug.

• Tell patient to report irregular heartbeat, shortness of breath, rash, or swollen hands or feet.

• Instruct patient to minimize GI upset by eating small, frequent meals.

• Advise patient to weigh himself daily and report sudden weight gain.

• As appropriate, review all other significant adverse reactions and interactions, especially those related to the drugs, tests, foods, herbs, and behaviors mentioned above.

McGraw-Hill Nurse's Drug Handbook, 7th Ed. Copyright © 2013 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved

nimodipine

(nə-mō′də-pēn′)
n.
A calcium channel blocker used to reduce neurological damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage.
The American Heritage® Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2007, 2004 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company. All rights reserved.

nimodipine

An dihydropyridine L-type calcium channel antagonist originally developed for treating hypertension; it is now used to prevent vasospasm in subarachnoid haemorrhage. Nimodipine preferentially binds to the channels when cells are depolarised, maintaining them in an opened state and theoretically preventing the accumulation of glutamate, which has been pathogenically linked to AIDS dementia complex.
Segen's Medical Dictionary. © 2012 Farlex, Inc. All rights reserved.

nimodipine

A CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKER drug used to minimise brain damage after subarachnoid haemorrhage. A brand name is Nimotop.
Collins Dictionary of Medicine © Robert M. Youngson 2004, 2005

Nimodipine (Nimotop)

A calcium-channel blocker, that is, a drug that relaxes arterial smooth muscle by slowing the movement of calcium across cell walls.
Mentioned in: Cerebral Aneurysm
Gale Encyclopedia of Medicine. Copyright 2008 The Gale Group, Inc. All rights reserved.
References in periodicals archive ?
All patients received the current standard of care, a calcium channel blocker called Nimodipine in addition to SFX-01 or the placebo.
According to the authors, there was insufficient evidence to determine the impact of divalproex, onabotulinumtoxinA, amitriptyline, nimodipine, or flunarizine versus placebo on headache frequency.
These included medical therapies, such as cinnarizine or cinnarizine/dimenhydrinate, citicoline, thiethylperazine, delorazepam or clonazepam, sulodexide, nimodipine, lipoflavonoid cereals, and levosulpiride, as well as hospital admission for intravenous mannitol or glycerol.
A certain amount of nimodipine injection (Yangtze River pharmaceutical group, China; batch no.: 1201006) was pumped using an intravenous micro-pump; the dose and injection speed were determined by surgeons.
Defendants agreed to allocate the market for Nimodipine, Meprobamate, Zoledronic Acid, and Doxycycline Hyclate Delayed Release, among others," it adds.
ICU physiotherapists reported that they preferred patients to remain in bed with minimal activity when the following factors were present: noradrenaline greater than 20mcg/min to maintain blood pressure above the set target (n=24/32, 75%), oral nimodipine recently administered and blood pressure was below desired target pressure (n=25/33, 76%), uncontrolled hypertension requiring antihypertensives (n=25/33, 76%) and hypotension with mean arterial blood pressure less than 65mmHg (n=28/32, 88%).
Oral nimodipine was used in the standard of dose 60 mg every 4 hours but then 30 mg every 2 hours if hypotensive.
The aim of this preliminary study was to evaluate the potential roles of the channels that regulate calcium and potassium ions in the neurotoxicity of CDDP To determine the effect of calcium ions, the cells were treated with nimodipine (L-type calcium channel blocker).
Efficacy of combining lumbrokinase with nimodipine in the treatment of vascular dementia.