In addition, vitamin D has been shown in studies to increase dopamine and dopamine metabolites by influencing nigrostriatal
dopaminergic pathways and thus having neuroprotective effects (13).
The lack of effect on dopamine levels suggest that behavioral recovery is driven by mechanisms other than direct protection of nigrostriatal
dopaminergic neurons, including modulation of neuroinflammation and/or analgesic effect of RTX after IT delivery.
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The most common PD treatment today is based on enhancing the activity of the nigrostriatal
pathway in the brain with dopamine-modulating therapies, thereby increasing striatal dopamine levels and improving motor impairment associated with the disease.
These dopaminergic neurons are situated in the nigrostriatal
pathway, which is a brain circuit that connects neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta with the dorsal striatum.
Lastly, the researchers examined the link between NM-MRI signal and psychosis severity, finding that more severe symptoms of psychosis were associated with higher NM-MRI signals in the nigrostriatal
pathway of individuals with schizophrenia and in those at-risk for schizophrenia.
Oestrogen can influence neural activity in the hypothalamus, and limbic system directly through modulation of neural excitability and they have complex multiphasic efferents on nigrostriatal
dopamine receptor sensitivity.
Dopamine follows four pathways, namely the mesolimbic, mesocortical, nigrostriatal
and tuberinfundibular pathways, to perform different functions in brain (Stahl, 2002).
This was hypothesised to be a result of decreased levels of oestrogen in post-menopausal women affecting the dopamine function of the nigrostriatal
This compensatory reaction might create a dopamine receptor super-sensitivity in the nigrostriatal
As one example, Parkinson's disease, a nigrostriatal
disorder characterized by dopamine deficiency, is common, occurring in 1% of individuals over the age of 60 and 0.1% under that age.
Although vitamin D deficiency is not reported as an exacerbating factor of RLS in the guidelines, it has been shown that vitamin D affects the nigrostriatal
pathways, increases dopamine and its metabolites, and protects dopaminergic neurons against toxins (5).