Although the majority of the research into learning in rabbits is based on changes in skeletal responses, particularly the closure of the upper eyelid and the sweep of the nictitating membrane
, a significant body of research has examined an autonomic response--deceleration of heart rate [73-80].
Horny or scaly skin may be related to the nictitating membrane
. Another source Rashi utilizes is TB Sotah 14a (found also in the Zohar, 1:36b), where we find that or is understood as something derived from skin or soothing to the skin.
Cats in groups 1 and 2 infected with pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus showed mild-to-moderate clinical signs (lethargy, appetite loss, rapid and labored breathing, and protruding nictitating membrane
) after 1 dpi or 2 dpi onwards.
Key words: Oxyspirura mansoni, detection, nictitating membrane
These currents are thought to be responsible for the enhanced long-lasting depolarization (LLD) exhibited in Hermissenda photoreceptors when these animals are exposed to Pavlovian conditioning, and for the increased EPSP summation seen in the vertebrate hippocampus after nictitating membrane
And a nictitating membrane
protects its beady eyes from flying dirt.
In addition, certain benign stimuli were applied to assess pupillary, corneal (blink and nictitating membrane
), defense (reacting to approach with attempts to withdraw or bite), skin sensitivity, pedal, tail, and audio responses.
The nictitating membrane
of large animals is frequently affected by neoplasms, malformations, foreign bodies and inflammations (Hendrix, 2007).
Corneal sensitivity was considered present if the bird blinked its eyelids or flashed the nictitating membrane
when the cotton wisp was applied; it was considered absent if no such response was observed, and diminished if the response was less robust than in cohort birds.
In other birds, chondrosarcomas have been described in the metatarsophalangeal joint (SIEGFRIED, 1983), nictitating membrane
(SPALDING & WOODARD, 1992), tarsal bones (KENNEDY et al., 1995), carpus (KUBO et al., 2007), sternum (DITTMER et al., 2012), and ventriculus (ERDOGAN et al., 2013).
Next, you should check your cat's eyes to ensure that the pupils are the same size, that there is no tearing or discharge, and that the third eyelid (nictitating membrane
) isn't drawn over the eye.
Their eyes are protected by a nictitating membrane
that moves up and down like an eyelid.