According to Brunzell, from a therapeutic perspective it will be important to discover if blocking beta2 subunit containing nicotinic receptors
relieves anxiety in smokers.
antagonism and ex-vivo acetylcholinesterase inhibition
They may indicate the heterogeneity of the human brain and the condition," says Roger Papke of the University of Florida in Gainesville, who has long studied nicotinic receptors
A polymorphism in the [alpha]4 nicotinic receptor
gene (Chrna4) modulates enhancement of nicotinic receptor
function by ethanol.
The highly selective nicotinic receptor
agonists (NRAs) have the potential to mimic, and surpass, the cognition-enhancing effects of nicotine without its cardiovascular or addictive side effects.
The enzyme looks like it regulates the part of the reward system that involves these nicotinic receptors
," he stated.
The PPT cells release the neurotransmitter acetylcholine from their projections to the VTA, which then acts on the nicotinic receptors
there, thereby stimulating the VTA cells to release dopamine in its various target brain regions.
Partial agonists to the [alpha]4 [beta]2 nicotinic receptor
are under development.
McGranahan added, "Identification of the type of nicotinic receptors
necessary for two key features of nicotine addiction - reward and anxiety - may help us better understand the pathway that leads to nicotine dependence, and potential treatment for the one billion cigarette smokers worldwide.
The mechanism of benefit is the blocking of the central nervous system (CNS) nicotinic receptors
, which is thought to restore balance to a deranged cholinergic tone implicated in depression.
As an antagonist, it seems like this drug's action should be the opposite of nicotine's, but research findings suggest that nicotine itself has an antagonistic action on nicotinic receptors
by inactivating them.
Neurotoxic effects in adult mice neonatally exposed to 3,3'4,4'5-pentachlorobiphenyl or 2,3,3'4,4'-pentachlorobiphenyl: changes in brain nicotinic receptors