niacin


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niacin

 [ni´ah-sin]
a water-soluble vitamin of the B complex (see vitamin), found in various animal and plant tissues, especially liver, yeast, bran, peanuts, lean meats, fish, and poultry. A well balanced diet usually supplies more than the daily requirement. It is required by the body for the synthesis of the coenzymes NAD and NADP, which are required for many oxidation-reduction reactions. Deficiency of niacin produces pellagra, and administration of niacin is used to prevent and treat that condition. It is also used to treat hyperlipidemia. Called also nicotinic acid.

nic·o·tin·ic ac·id

(nik'ō-tin'ik as'id),
Part of the vitamin B complex; used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra, as a vasodilator, and in hyperlipidemia, in which it lowers cholesterol and acts an agent to elevate levels of high-density lipoprotein.

niacin

(nī′ə-sĭn)
n.
A white crystalline acid, C6H5NO2, of the vitamin B complex that is found in meat, fish, legumes, and whole-grain foods and is used to treat and prevent pellagra. Also called nicotinic acid.

niacin

A water-soluble “B-complex” vitamin integrated in the coenzyme nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD), an H+ acceptor for dehydrogenases which is formed in the body from tryptophan; it has been used in management of alcoholism, migraines, and to improve lipid profiles.
 
Deficiency
Anorexia, glossitis, headaches, insomnia, rash, depression, pseudodementia.
 
Toxicity
Skin flushing, arrhythmias, defects in glucose and urea metabolism, diarrhoea, nausea, gastric bleeding, headaches, itching, hepatic toxicity, psychotic reactions.

Normal
> 2.5 mg/24 hour in urine.

Sources
High-protein foods—e.g., fish, poultry, meats, liver, yeast, enriched bread, cereals.

Niacin decreased the risks of CAD by improving the lipid profile: decreased LDL-C by 15%, decreased TGs by 30%, decreased Apo B by 16%, decreased Lp(1) by 25%, and increased HDL-C by 20%; it is believed by some alternative health advocates to be useful for anxiety, arthritis, autism, depression, DM, hypoglycemia, and schizophrenia.

nic·o·tin·ic ac·id

(nik'ō-tin'ik as'id)
A part of the vitamin B3 complex; used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra, as a vasodilator, and as an HDL-raising agent; taken by some people in erroneous idea it will hide drug use in urine tests; such use can elicit GI complaints, dizziness, and loss of consciousness.
Synonym(s): niacin.

niacin

Nicotinamide, one of the B group of vitamins. Nicotinic acid. Niacin is present in liver, meat, grains and legumes. It is a constituent of coenzymes involved in oxidation-reduction reactions. Deficiency causes PELLAGRA. Niacin is being used in the treatment of high blood cholesterol levels. The drug is on the WHO official list.

niacin

see NICOTINIC ACID.

nic·o·tin·ic ac·id

(nik'ō-tin'ik as'id)
A part of the vitamin B3 complex; used in the prevention and treatment of pellagra, as a vasodilator, and as an agent to increase levels of high-density lipoproteins.
Synonym(s): niacin.
References in periodicals archive ?
To test whether niacin-treatment can increase the stress-response in two common kiwifruit cultivars, we sprayed kiwifruits with niacin and first tested chlorophyll content in the leaves.
Serum niacin estimation could not be done due to financial constraints.
Adverse effects such as flushing, hyperglycemia, gastrointestinal disturbance, and elevated liver enzymes interfered with adherence to niacin treatment (66.3% of patients were adherent to treatment with niacin vs 77.8% for placebo).
All of the data collected were subjected to one-way analysis of variance analysis with the Statistical Analysis Systems statistical software package (Version 8e, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, USA), and the primary effect of niacin treatment was evaluated.
Niacin therapy and the risk of new-onset diabetes: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials.
Primary Pellagra occurs when the diet is deficient in Niacin or Tryptophan as in poor populations with an exclusive maize diet (which contain Niacin but in an indigestible form).
"The only form of niacin that is clinically proven to support good cholesterol is nicotinic acid, " said Lavie.
The study involved 25,673 high-risk men and women at 245 sites in the United Kingdom, Scandinavia, and China whose LDL cholesterol was already controlled by statins and who were randomly assigned to receive either oral niacin plus laropiprant (a prostaglandin-receptor antagonist that improves adherence to niacin by reducing flushing) or a matching placebo (N.
One of the two studies suggests that "for every 200 people that we treat with niacin, there is one excess death," plus higher rates of bleeding, infections and other problems -- "a completely unacceptable level" of harm.
Niacin is a type of B vitamin long sold over the counter and in higher prescription doses.
Vertellus has developed NiaPro encapsulated niacin, an encapsulated feed-additive form of niacin.