neutron activation analysis


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neutron activation analysis

A method for identifying and measuring the concentrations of the chemical elements in a large and complex sample of material.

Method
A sample is rendered radioactive by bombarding it with neutrons, charged particles or gamma rays, making the nuclei of the different elements unstable and radioactive, and putting them in a higher energy state. Each of the now-radioactive isotopes in the sample gives off a characteristic signature (e.g., alpha particles, gamma rays), which indicates the type and concentration of the elements in the sample.
References in periodicals archive ?
Manninen, "Determination of total organic chlorine and bromine in water samples by adsorption onto activated carbon and neutron activation analysis," Chemosphere, vol.
Shibuya, "Determination of trace elements in tea plant by neutron activation analysis," Radioisotopes, vol.
Rosada, "Ultra-trace nutritional and toxicological elements in Rome and Florence drinking waters determined by Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis," Microchemical Journal, vol.
Chemical elements determined by X ray fluorescence (XRF) and neutron activation analysis (NAA).
The techniques also offer several advantages such as shorter analysis times and have no requirement for the separation of thorium from the sample matrix over the more traditional radiometric methods e.g., alpha spectro- metry, gamma spectrometry and neutron activation analysis in the measurement of thorium [85].
The analyzer uses prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technology, a method based in nuclear physics, to perform a real-time composite analysis on streams of shredded ferrous scrap.
Comparative bullet lead analysis was developed in the early 1960s by researchers at General Atomic (now General Activation Analysis, Incorporated, Encinitas, California) under a federal grant to develop uses for neutron activation analysis (NAA).
The members of The Review Committee include Thomas Fahidy, FCIC, Associate Dean for Graduate Studies and Research at the University of Waterloo Faculty of Engineering, Sheldon Landsberger, Director of the Neutron Activation Analysis Facility at the University of Illinois Department of Nuclear Engineering, Stewart McIntyre, MCIC, Director of the Surface Science Laboratory at the University of Western Ontario and, Chair of the Commit, David Minns, MCIC, CSChE Director representing the Environment Division.
Somewhat more useful for identifying ceramic exchange patterns are the results of neutron activation analysis, which show samples from Hamrin and lower Diyala sites clustered far distant from the Tepe Farukhabad (Deh Luran plain) control group, implying ceramic interchange between the Hamrin and lower Diyala sites.
The final popular method of inclusion sampling is a grab sampling technique based on nuclear principles and is known as the fast neutron activation analysis (FNAA).
The techniques, including particle-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) and neutron activation analysis (NAA), have been used to analyse the elemental composition of paintings as well as the origin of glass samples, among other applications.
Daniel Pflaum of Cincinnati-based Gamma-Tech LLC is sole distributor of a bulk scrap analyzer manufactured by Thermo Gamma-Metrics, a wholly owned subsidiary of Thermo Electron, Waltham, Mass., that uses prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) technology.