Other studies have also shown that ventral root avulsions cause motor neurons death associated with neuronophagia
. As a model of retrograde degeneration, the L4-L5 ventral rhizotomy is similar to axotomy paradigms in the CNS, in which loss of differentiated transmitter phenotype (usually an early change) is accompanied by alterations in the neuronal cytoskeleton and, eventually, cell death (Gage et al., 1986; Koliatsos et al., 1989).
Furthermore, satellitosis, occasional neuronophagia
, single-cell necrosis of Purkinje cells (patients 2 and 4), loss of hippocampal pyramidal cell layer (patient 2), focally extensive hemorrhage (patient 2), and lipofuscin deposition were found.
Histopathologically, necrosis, perivascular cuffing, neuronophagia
, and gliosis are hallmarks of nonsuppurative polioencephalitis .
by leukocytes in experimental spinal cord injury," Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology, vol.
by leukocytes in experimental spinalcord injury," Journal of Neuropathology & Experimental Neurology, vol.
(6,7) Occasional necrotic neurons and neuronophagia
were also present.
Microscopy of the meninges, cerebellum, midbrain, pons, medulla, and cervical cord demonstrated extensive lymphocytic meningomyelitis and encephalitis, characterized by prominent neuronophagia
in motor nuclei (Figure, B).
Pathologic findings in the birds included hepatomegaly and splenomegaly; some also had encephalitis manifesting as multifocal areas of neuronophagia
Inflammatory cells were clustered around dying anterior horn cells, which is an indication of neuronophagia
Inflammatory cells were clustered around dying anterior horn cells, an indication of neuronophagia
Nonsuppurative myelitis is oriented on the ventral horn involving neuronal degeneration with satellitosis (black arrow), neuronophagia
(arrowhead), and glial nodule formation (blue arrow), accompanied by perivascular mononuclear cell I accumulation and gliosis.
The affected hemisphere shows microglial nodules with or without neuronophagia
, perivascular cuffs of small lymphocytes and monocytes, and gliosis.