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(nū'rō-năl, nū-rō'năl),
Pertaining to a neuron.
Farlex Partner Medical Dictionary © Farlex 2012


Pertaining to a neuron.
Medical Dictionary for the Health Professions and Nursing © Farlex 2012


(noo'ron?) [Gr. neuron, nerve, sinew]
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A nerve cell, the structural and functional unit of the nervous system. A neuron consists of a cell body (perikaryon) and its processes, an axon and one or more dendrites. Neurons function in the initiation and conduction of impulses. They transmit impulses to other neurons or cells by releasing neurotransmitters at synapses. Alternatively, a neuron may release neurohormones into the bloodstream. Synonym: nerve cell See: illustrationneuronal (noor''on-al), adjective

afferent neuron

A neuron that conducts sensory impulses toward the brain or spinal cord.
Synonym: sensory neuron

association neuron


associative neuron

A neuron that mediates impulses between a sensory and a motor neuron.

bipolar neuron

1. A neuron that bears two processes.
2. A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from the rods and cones and transmits them to a ganglion neuron. See: retina for illus.

central neuron

A neuron confined entirely to the central nervous system.

commissural neuron

A neuron whose axon crosses to the opposite side of the brain or spinal cord.

efferent neuron

A neuron whose axon carries motor impulses away from the brain or spinal cord.

gamma motor neuron

A small nerve originating in the anterior horns of the spinal cord that transmits impulses through type A gamma fibers to intrafusal fibers of the muscle spindle for muscle control.

ganglion neuron

A neuron of the retina that receives impulses from bipolar neurons. Axons of ganglion neurons converge at the optic disk to form the optic nerve.
See: retina for illus.

internuncial neuron


lower motor neuron

A peripheral motor neuron that originates in the ventral horns of the gray matter of the spinal cord and terminates in skeletal muscles. Lesions of these neurons produce flaccid paralysis of the muscles they innervate. Synonym: lower motoneuron

mirror neuron

Any of a group of neurons that become active both when an animal moves in a certain way and when the animal observes others performing the same action. Learning by simulation or imitation is thought to be a function of the system of mirror neurons in the brain.

motor neuron

A neuron that carries impulses from the central nervous system either to muscle tissue to stimulate contraction or to glandular tissue to stimulate secretion.

multipolar neuron

A neuron with one axon and many dendrites.

peripheral neuron

A neuron whose process constitutes a part of the peripheral nervous system (cranial, spinal, or autonomic nerves).

peripheral motor neuron

A motor neuron that transmits impulses to skeletal muscle. Synonym: peripheral motoneuron

postganglionic neuron

A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in an autonomic ganglion and whose axon terminates in a visceral effector (smooth or cardiac muscle or glands).

preganglionic neuron

A neuron of the autonomic nervous system whose cell body lies in the central nervous system and whose axon terminates in a peripheral ganglion, synapsing with postganglionic neurons.

sensory neuron

Afferent neuron.

serotonergic neuron

A nerve cell that uses serotonin as its neurotransmitter.

unipolar neuron

A neuron whose cell body bears one process.

upper motor neuron

A motor neuron (actually an interneuron) found completely within the central nervous system that synapses with or regulates the actions of lower motor neurons in the spinal cord and cranial nerves. Lesions of these neurons produce spastic paralysis in the muscles they innervate. Synonym: upper motoneuron
Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners
References in periodicals archive ?
When treated with glutamate alone, CGNs experienced approximately 50% cell death evidenced by nuclear condensation and fragmentation as well as moderate degradation of neuronal processes (Figure 5(a)).
This was even the case for some of the cells that did not yet have clear neuronal processes, suggesting that the cells are neuron precursors.
The TU-20 label allowed us to visualize the neuronal processes, where it could be seen that cells formed connections or at least contacted each other through these processes across long distances on the coverslip (Figure 7(d)).
"Other studies have shown that neuronal processes that signal the brain to eat were wired differently in the hypothalamus if a hormonal gene, such as leptin, was missing," said the study's lead author, Dr.
Blueberry polyphenols appear to directly affect neuronal processes such as survival mechanisms and intracellular signals.
In the first case, positive staining of enteroviral antigens and nucleic acids was observed in neurons, neuronal processes, and inflammatory foci at various CNS sites, including the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and all levels of spinal cord (Figure 1A, B).
An IHC test using an anti-Japanese encephalitis antibody showed intense immunostaining of flaviviral antigens in neurons, neuronal processes, and inflammatory foci at various CNS sites (Figure 2A, B).
To test the hypothesis, the researchers constructed a mathematical model, which was designed to imitate, in a highly simplified manner, the neuronal processes which occur during the comprehension of speech.
Neuronal processes were described by algorithms, which processed speech at several temporal levels.
The investigators said the reasons for the reduced volume may include a loss or atrophy of neurons or glia, an altered ratio of small to large cell types, or a decreased density of neuronal processes.
Immunohistochemical staining demonstrated viral antigens in neurons, neuronal processes, and areas of necrosis (Figure 2).

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