neuroleptic

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neuroleptic

 [noor″o-lep´tik]
a term coined to refer to the effects on cognition and behavior of the original antipsychotic agents, which produced a state of apathy, lack of initiative, and limited range of emotion and in psychotic patients caused a reduction in confusion and agitation and normalization of psychomotor activity. The term is still used to refer to agents, such as droperidol, used to produce such effects as part of anesthesia or analgesia; however, it is outdated as a synonym for antipsychotic agents because newer agents do not necessarily have such effects.
neuroleptic malignant syndrome a rare but dramatic condition that occurs in severely ill patients being treated with high-potency antipsychotics (neuroleptics); symptoms include diaphoresis, muscle rigidity, and hyperpyrexia. It is believed to be caused by dopamine blockade in the hypothalamus.

neu·ro·lep·tic

(nū'rō-lep'tik),
Any of a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia; includes the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, and butyrophenone derivates and the dihydroindolones. Synonym(s): neuroleptic agent
See also: antipsychotic agent.
[neuro- + G. lēpsis, taking hold]

neuroleptic

(no͝or′ə-lĕp′tĭk, nyo͝or′-)
n.
An antipsychotic or anesthetic drug that causes apathy and decreased affect.

neu′ro·lep′tic adj.

antipsychotic

adjective Referring to an antipsychotic drug.

noun Any drug that attenuates psychotic episodes.
 
Agents
Phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, dibenzoxazepines, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines.
 
Main types of antipsychotics
Typical and atypical, which differ in their side/adverse effects.
 
Indications
Management of schizophrenic, paranoid, schizo-affective and other psychotic disorders; acute delirium, dementia, manic episodes (during induction of lithium therapy), control of movement disorders (in Huntington’s disease), Tourette syndrome, ballismus, intractable hiccups, severe nausea and vomiting (by blocking the medulla’s chemoreceptor trigger zone).
 
Adverse effects
Extrapyramidal effects (dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism), tardive dyskinesia due to blocking of basal ganglia; sedation and autonomic side effects (orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, nasal congestion and constipation) are due to blocking of histaminic, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors.

neuroleptic

Psychiatry An agent used to treat psychotic illnesses–eg, obsessive-compulsive disorder

neu·ro·lep·tic

(nūr'ō-lep'tik)
1. Any of a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia; includes the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, and butyrophenone derivatives and the dihydroindolones.
See also: antipsychotic agent
Synonym(s): neuroleptic agent.
2. Denoting a condition similar to that produced by such an agent.
[neuro- + G. lēpsis, taking hold]

neuroleptic

1. Capable of bringing about emotional quietening without impairing consciousness. Capable of modifying abnormal psychotic behaviour.
2. Any drug having these effects.

Neuroleptic

Another name for older antipsychotic medications, such as haloperidol. The term does not apply to such newer atypical agents as clozapine (Clozaril).
References in periodicals archive ?
We emphasize the importance of a high index of suspicion of NMS in patients using neuroleptic agents.
DISCUSSION: Atypical neuroleptic agents have been shown to be highly effective and in general, safe, obtaining widespread use in medicine.
When first introduced, atypicals were widely touted as more effective and safer than older neuroleptic agents, which eased the physician reticence about prescribing these medications for young patients, they wrote.
Such medications include antidepressants (except bupropion); neuroleptic agents; dopamine-blocking antiemetics, such as metodopramide; and sedating antihistamines.
In 2 years, just 2 of the 48 patients at Rush continued to have benign hallucinations without requiring either a decrease in their dose of dopaminergic medications or an addition of neuroleptic agents to counteract the hallucinations or progressing to more serious hallucinations with loss of insight (UPDRS Thought Disorder score of 3) or delusions (UPDRS Thought Disorder score of 4).
Atypical neuroleptic agents show benefit in studies for trauma-related psychotic symptoms such as hallucinations.
Sedative-hypnotic agents are more effective than neuroleptic agents in reducing mortality in alcohol withdrawal delirium popularly known as delirium tremens.