neuroleptic


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Related to neuroleptic: Neuroleptic drugs

neuroleptic

 [noor″o-lep´tik]
a term coined to refer to the effects on cognition and behavior of the original antipsychotic agents, which produced a state of apathy, lack of initiative, and limited range of emotion and in psychotic patients caused a reduction in confusion and agitation and normalization of psychomotor activity. The term is still used to refer to agents, such as droperidol, used to produce such effects as part of anesthesia or analgesia; however, it is outdated as a synonym for antipsychotic agents because newer agents do not necessarily have such effects.
neuroleptic malignant syndrome a rare but dramatic condition that occurs in severely ill patients being treated with high-potency antipsychotics (neuroleptics); symptoms include diaphoresis, muscle rigidity, and hyperpyrexia. It is believed to be caused by dopamine blockade in the hypothalamus.

neu·ro·lep·tic

(nū'rō-lep'tik),
Any of a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia; includes the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, and butyrophenone derivates and the dihydroindolones. Synonym(s): neuroleptic agent
See also: antipsychotic agent.
[neuro- + G. lēpsis, taking hold]

neuroleptic

(no͝or′ə-lĕp′tĭk, nyo͝or′-)
n.
An antipsychotic or anesthetic drug that causes apathy and decreased affect.

neu′ro·lep′tic adj.

antipsychotic

adjective Referring to an antipsychotic drug.

noun Any drug that attenuates psychotic episodes.
 
Agents
Phenothiazines, thioxanthenes, butyrophenones, dibenzoxazepines, dibenzodiazepines, diphenylbutylpiperidines.
 
Main types of antipsychotics
Typical and atypical, which differ in their side/adverse effects.
 
Indications
Management of schizophrenic, paranoid, schizo-affective and other psychotic disorders; acute delirium, dementia, manic episodes (during induction of lithium therapy), control of movement disorders (in Huntington’s disease), Tourette syndrome, ballismus, intractable hiccups, severe nausea and vomiting (by blocking the medulla’s chemoreceptor trigger zone).
 
Adverse effects
Extrapyramidal effects (dystonia, akathisia, parkinsonism), tardive dyskinesia due to blocking of basal ganglia; sedation and autonomic side effects (orthostatic hypotension, blurred vision, dry mouth, nasal congestion and constipation) are due to blocking of histaminic, cholinergic and adrenergic receptors.

neuroleptic

Psychiatry An agent used to treat psychotic illnesses–eg, obsessive-compulsive disorder

neu·ro·lep·tic

(nūr'ō-lep'tik)
1. Any of a class of psychotropic drugs used to treat psychosis, particularly schizophrenia; includes the phenothiazine, thioxanthene, and butyrophenone derivatives and the dihydroindolones.
See also: antipsychotic agent
Synonym(s): neuroleptic agent.
2. Denoting a condition similar to that produced by such an agent.
[neuro- + G. lēpsis, taking hold]

neuroleptic

1. Capable of bringing about emotional quietening without impairing consciousness. Capable of modifying abnormal psychotic behaviour.
2. Any drug having these effects.

Neuroleptic

Another name for older antipsychotic medications, such as haloperidol. The term does not apply to such newer atypical agents as clozapine (Clozaril).
References in periodicals archive ?
It is also worth mentioning that if a clinician wishes to restart the neuroleptic medication, a 2-week washout period will minimize the risk of NMS recurrence.
Pooled data from 1966 to 1997 suggested the incidence of NMS ranges from 0.2% to 3.2% of psychiatric inpatients receiving neuroleptic. However, as physicians have become increasingly aware of the syndrome and as new neuroleptic agents have become available, the incidence has declined more recently to around 0.01% to 0.02%1.
Northoff, "Catatonia and neuroleptic malignant syndrome: psychopathology and pathophysiology," Journal of Neural Transmission, vol.
(5) Alternatively, it may be the case that this idiosyncratic drug reaction can, in very rare cases, develop after many months or even years of patients being stable on neuroleptic medications, without any trigger at all.
Neuroleptic malignant syndrome can occur with atypical antipsychotic drugs such as olanzapine, particularly when risk factors are present.
It is often a real challenge to diagnose Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome.
Paliperidone, even if with QT and QTc in normal ranges, was the atypical neuroleptic with the most relevant difference with aripiprazole, but again only on QT.
Woodbury, "Neuroleptic-induced catatonia as a stage in the progression toward neuroleptic malignant syndrome," Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, vol.
Raguram, "The neuroleptic malignant syndrome: an Indian experience," Comprehensive Psychiatry, vol.
Some of the dangerous side effects are hypoglycemia, neuroleptic malignant syndrome, seizures, and increased risk of death and cerebrovascular events in elderly patients with dementiarelated psychosis (Stahl's Essential Psychopharmacology, prescriber's guide, 5th edition).