The eyestalks of crustaceans contain the optic lobes and the x-organ/sinus gland, a neuropeptide-secreting neurohemal
structure that is analogous to the vertebrate hypothalamuspituitary system.
The; CC consist of axonal endings of neurosecretory cells and their own intrinsic endocrine (glandular) cells and, thus, represent a combined structure functioning as both neurohemal organ and classical endocrine gland (Klowden 2007).
Apparently, there are no data concerning the differences between the left and right parts of CC related to their neurohemal function, but the specific unequal distribution of stored neurohormones among the loft and right lobes of CC can be a reason of CC bridge anatomical lateralization.
We conclude that this GABA does not originate in the nearby nerves, but probably is produced and released by a distant neurohemal
These reproductive peptides may be released from much of the surface of the nervous system and not just from well-defined neurohemal organs.
In Lymnaea, the CDCs release egg-laying peptides into the hemolymph via neurohemal areas and also from blind ending axons in the medulla of the commissure (Van Minnen et al.
In addition to the CA, decapitation removes the median neurosecretory cells of the pars intercerebralis (PlC), the corpora cardiaca which serve as paired neurohemal
organs for the products of the cerebral neurosecretory cells, intrinsic neurosecretory cells of the corpora cardiaca, and the nervus CA II which contain neurosecretory material.
Antagonistic, neurosecretory peptide hormones, the chromatophorotropins, produced and released by the eyestalk X-organ/ sinus gland complex and other neurohemal
organs, regulate such pigment movements in decapod crustaceans (Rao, 1985).
T"" are neurohemal
structures that release neurohormones "" cardioregulator and other functions into hemolymph ""ing to the heart (Alexandrowicz, 1953; Alexandrowicz and Carlisle, 1953).
Numerous IR-FaRP processes terminating in varicosities in the connective tissue around the CNS may constitute a diffuse neurohemal
area and account for the hemolymph IR-FaRP levels.
At the electron microscopic level, membrane-bound electron-dense vesicles reminiscent of neurosecretory granules have been observed within axons in the median ocellar nerve of Semibalanus cariosus (Fahrenbach, 1965) and Chirona (Balanus) hameri (Clare and Walker, 1989); these vesicles apparently constitute a neurohemal
The neurosecretory system of the octopus vena cava: a neurohemal