neurofibrillary tangle


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neu·ro·fi·bril·la·ry tan·gle

intraneuronal accumulations of helical filaments that assume twisted contorted patterns; found in cells of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex in patients with Alzheimer disease.

neurofibrillary tangle

A characteristic histologic finding in the perikaryon of large cortical neurones of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, which consists of fibrilised protein derived from microtubule-associated protein tau. The number of NFTs loosely correlates with the severity of dementia.
 
DiffDx
Down’s syndrome, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, lead encephalopathy, tuberous sclerosis, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, lipofuscinosis, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, and normal adults (confined to the hippocampus).

neurofibrillary tangle

Neuropathology A characteristic histologic finding in the perikaryon of large cortical neurons of Pts with Alzheimer's disease, the number of NFTs loosely correlates with the severity of dementia DiffDx Down's syndrome, subacute sclerosing panencephalitis, lead encephalopathy, tuberous sclerosis, Hallervorden-Spatz disease, lipofuscinosis, post-encephalitic parkinsonism, and normal adults–confined to the hippocampus. See Alzheimer's disease, Amyloid plaque, Granulovacuolar degeneration, Paired helical filaments, Senile plaques.

Neurofibrillary tangle

—Twisted masses of protein inside nerve cells that develop in the brains of people with AD.
Mentioned in: Alzheimer's Disease
References in periodicals archive ?
Thus, the integrated effect of PKC activation on the complete amyloidogenic and neurofibrillary tangle pathways is to inhibit and prevent the pathologic hallmarks of AD.
In 1907, the German physician found microscopic bits of debris -- now called plaques and neurofibrillary tangles -- cluttering brain tissue taken from a 51-year-old woman who had suffered from dementia.
Columbia University Medical Center (CUMC) researchers found that abnormal tau protein, a key feature of the neurofibrillary tangles seen in the brains of those with Alzheimer's, propagates along linked brain circuits, "jumping" from neuron to neuron.
The two major hallmarks of AD pathology, Abeta plaque deposition and neurofibrillary tangles, arise from increased proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP) and microtubule destabilization due to tau hyperphosphorylation, respectively.
4) Additional post-mortem studies have also shown an increased amount of neurofibrillary tangles and beta-amyloid plaques in the hippocampus of patients with diabetes.
Originally put forth in the mid-1980s, the amyloid hypothesis maintained that beta-amyloid deposits in the brain set off all subsequent events -- the neurofibrillary tangles that choke the insides of neurons, neuronal cell death, and inflammation leading to a vicious cycle of massive cell death," says Rudolph Tanzi, PhD, director of the MGH Genetics and Aging Research Unit and co-senior author of the report receiving advance online publication in Nature.
The authors provide a diagrammatic summary of the potential targets of the curcuminoids in AD which highlights targets against amyloid precursor protein and Ap activity through reduced apoptosis, inhibition of Nf-kB activation, decreased inflammatory stress, and improvements in neuronal survival; decrease in neurofibrillary tangles and improved cognition via attenuation of muscarinic insufficiency.
Neurofibrillary tangles, one of the characteristic pathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD), are composed of paired helical filaments mainly with hyperphosphorylated tau protein.
Tau protein is the main component of neurofibrillary tangles, one of the hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease.
Until recently, the hallmark changes in the brain leading to a diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease could be seen only after death, in brain sections treated to reveal plaques containing beta-amyloid protein and neurofibrillary tangles containing abnormal tau protein.
AD is a neurodegenerative process in which amyloid protein forms plaques and misprocessed tau protein forms neurofibrillary tangles in the brain, disrupting neural function.
The pathological diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease requires documented findings of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the brain either by biopsy or postmortem examination--procedures that are performed in only a minority of patients.