In the neurocranium
, nasal capsules expand ventrolaterally; in Urotrygon nana and Urotrygon munda the capsules migration towards the ventral region is barely evident (Fig.
In Apalone spinifera, the elements of the neurocranium
ossify between stages 19 and 23 (SHEIL, 2003), in Macrochelys teminckii between stages 21 and 24 (SHEIL, 2005), and in Chelydra serpentina (RIEPPEL, 1993; SHEIL; GREENBAUM, 2005) between stages 21 and 23, indicating that this is the period of longest duration in Podocnemis expansa, since it takes place between stages 19 and 24.
that compose the posterior part of the neurocranium
are crushed beyond recognition.
To aid in the analysis of RA-induced defects, skeletal elements have been grouped according to their embryological origin and their position within the neurocranium
or the pharyngeal skeleton.
Authors provided general information about the external morphology, neurocranium
and pelvic girdle of the species.
The subject of the above threshold procurement is the supply of materials used for craniotomy closure or reconstruction neurocranium
after neurosurgical operations for intracranial lesions and injuries to the Neurosurgical Clinic FN Ostrava.
An isolated partially articulated segment of four dorsal fin pterygiophores are preserved near the posterior end of the neurocranium
The head of the Dinaric type of humans (Illyrians) is characterized with a high breadth of the head, a medium length of the neurocranium
(often back part is somewhat flattened), the vertical height of the cranium is high, and the face is long and wide.
It is not feasible to present a probable phylogeny of the genus because more detailed anatomical studies of the four nominal species are needed, particularly the osteology of the caudal complex and the neurocranium
, as well as a comparative study of their early ontogenic stages.
2) Coefficients of variation (V = 100s/m) are largest for measurements of the facial skeleton (LD, LIF, BR, BPB, BZP) and incisors (DI), and least for measurements of the molar dentition (LM, BM1) and neurocranium
(LIB, BB); measurements of the orbital fossa (LOF) and cranial length (CIL) usually exhibit intermediate values of V.
In addition, muscle forces, facial biotype, teeth size, shape and size of neurocranium
, diet habits, the head position, environmental influences, and socioeconomic factors, along with ethnic characteristics and racial miscegenation could also change the mastication function and mandibular morphology (Bogin & Rios 2003; Prado & Caria 2007).
contains the anterior-most part of the frontals, lateral ethmoids, nasals, and posterior parts of the prenasals.