neural tube


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Related to neural tube: neural plate, neural tube formation

tube

 [to̳b]
a hollow cylindrical organ or instrument. adj., adj tu´bal.
auditory tube eustachian tube.
Blakemore-Sengstaken tube Sengstaken-Blakemore tube.
chest tube see chest tube.
Dobhoff tube a small-lumen feeding tube that can be advanced into the duodenum.
drainage tube a tube used in surgery to facilitate escape of fluids.
Drieling tube a double-lumen tube having a metal weight at one end to carry it past the stomach into the duodenum. At the other end are two tails, one used to collect gastric specimens and the other to collect specimens from the duodenum. The tube is used in the secretin test for pancreatic exocrine function.
Durham's tube a jointed tracheostomy tube.
endobronchial tube a single- or double-lumen tube inserted into the bronchus of one lung and sealed with an inflatable cuff, permitting ventilation of the intubated lung and complete deflation of the other lung; used in anesthesia and thoracic surgery.
endotracheal tube see endotracheal tube.
esophageal tube stomach tube.
eustachian tube see eustachian tube.
Ewald tube a large lumen tube used in gastric lavage.
fallopian tube see fallopian tube.
feeding tube one for introducing high-caloric fluids into the stomach; see also tube feeding.
tube feeding a means of providing nutrition via a feeding tube inserted into the gastrointestinal tract; it may be done to maintain nutritional status over a period of time or as a treatment for malnutrition. It can be used as the only source of nutrition or as a supplement to oral feeding or parenteral nutrition.

Patients who may require tube feeding include those unable to take in an adequate supply of nutrients by mouth because of the side effects of chemotherapy or radiation therapy, those with depression or some other psychiatric disorder, and those suffering from severe hypermetabolic states such as burns or sepsis, or malabsorption syndromes. Other conditions that may require tube feeding include surgery or trauma to the oropharynx, esophageal fistula, and impaired swallowing such as that which occurs following stroke or that related to neuromuscular paralysis.

There are commercially prepared formulas for tube feeding. Some contain all six necessary nutrients (carbohydrates, fats, proteins, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements) and need no supplement as long as they are given in sufficient volume to meet nutritional and caloric needs. Other types of tube feeding formulas are incomplete and therefore will require some supplementation. Choice of formula is based on the patient's particular needs, presence of organ failure or metabolic aberration, lactose tolerance, gastrointestinal function, and how and where the feeding is to be given, that is, via nasogastric, gastrostomy, or enterostomy tube.
Patient Care. In addition to frequent and periodic checking for tube placement and monitoring of gastric residuals to prevent aspiration, other maintenance activities include monitoring effectiveness of the feeding and assessing the patient's tolerance to the tube and the feeding. Special mouth care is essential to maintain a healthy oral mucosa. A summary of the complications related to tube feeding, their causes and contributing factors, and interventions to treat or prevent each complication is presented in the accompanying table.
fermentation tube a U-shaped tube with one end closed, for determining gas production by bacteria.
Levin tube a gastroduodenal catheter of sufficiently small caliber to permit transnasal passage; see illustration.
Two types of nasogastric tubes. From Ignatavicius et al., 1995.
Linton tube a triple-lumen tube with a single balloon used to control hemorrhage from esophageal varices. Once it is positioned under fluoroscopic control and inflated, the balloon exerts pressure against the submucosal venous network at the cardioesophageal junction, thus restricting the flow of blood to the esophageal varices.
Miller-Abbott tube see miller-abbott tube.
Minnesota tube a tube with four lumens, used in treatment of esophageal varices; having a lumen for aspiration of esophageal secretions is its major difference from the sengstaken-blakemore tube.
nasogastric tube see nasogastric tube.
nasotracheal tube an endotracheal tube that passes through the nose.
neural tube the epithelial tube produced by folding of the neural plate in the early embryo.
orotracheal tube an endotracheal tube that passes through the mouth.
otopharyngeal tube eustachian tube.
Rehfuss tube a single-lumen oral tube used to obtain specimens of biliary secretions for diagnostic study; it is weighted on one end so that it can be passed through the mouth and positioned at the point where the bile duct empties into the duodenum. See also biliary drainage test.
Salem sump tube a double-lumen nasogastric tube used for suction and irrigation of the stomach. One lumen is attached to suction for the drainage of gastric contents and the second lumen is an air vent. See illustration.
Sengstaken-Blakemore tube see sengstaken-blakemore tube.
stomach tube see stomach tube.
T-tube one shaped like the letter T and inserted into the biliary tract to allow for drainage of bile; it is generally left in place for 10 days or more in order to develop a tract through which bile can drain after the tube is removed. A T-tube cholangiogram is usually performed prior to removal of the tube in order to determine that the common duct is patent and free of stones. If stones are found they can be removed through the tube tract by instruments inserted under x-ray guidance.
test tube a tube of thin glass, closed at one end; used in chemical tests and other laboratory procedures.
thoracostomy tube a tube inserted through an opening in the chest wall, for application of suction to the pleural cavity; used to drain fluid or blood or to reexpand the lung in pneumothorax. See also chest tube.
tracheal tube endotracheal tube.
tracheostomy tube a curved endotracheal tube that is inserted into the trachea through a tracheostomy; see discussion under tracheostomy.
tympanostomy tube ventilation tube.
uterine tube fallopian tube.
ventilation tube a tube inserted after myringotomy in chronic cases of middle ear effusion, such as in secretory or mucoid otitis media; it provides ventilation and drainage for the middle ear during healing, and is eventually extruded. Called also tympanostomy tube.
Tympanostomy (ventilation) tube. Polyethylene tubes are inserted surgically into the eardrum to relieve middle ear pressure and promote drainage of chronic or recurrent middle ear infections. Tubes extrude spontaneously in 6 months to 1 year. From Jarvis, 1996.
Wangensteen tube a small nasogastric tube connected with a special suction apparatus to maintain gastric and duodenal decompression.
Whelan-Moss T-tube a t-tube whose crossbar tube is larger in diameter than the drainage tube.
x-ray tube a glass vacuum bulb containing two electrodes; electrons are obtained either from gas in the tube or from a heated cathode. When suitable potential is applied, electrons travel at high velocity from cathode to anode, where they are suddenly arrested, giving rise to x-rays.

neu·ral tube

the epithelial tube formed from the neuroectoderm of the early embryo by the closure of the neural groove; by complex processes of cell proliferation and organization, the neural tube develops into the spinal cord and brain.
Synonym(s): medullary tube

neural tube

n.
A dorsal tubular structure in the vertebrate embryo that is formed by longitudinal folding of the neural plate and that differentiates into the brain and spinal cord.

neural tube

the ectodermal tube formed along the back of the developing embryo, which develops into the brain and spinal cord.
References in periodicals archive ?
Another researcher states that the study confirmed a long-standing theory that females had an additional risk factor for neural tube defects and that a breakdown in the associated X chromosome inactivation process could help to explain why females were more likely than males to have neural tube-related birth defects.
Neural tube defects maybe related to folate deficiency, other medications, obesity or genetic factors.
Many clinical studies have found that maternal supplementation with vitamins including folic acid, before conception and during the first trimester of pregnancy, significantly reduces the risk of neural tube defects.(5-12) It appears that folic acid is the most important of these vitamins.
Spina bifida in curly tail mice (ct-/ct-) results from a defective closure of the posterior neuropore, which forms the caudal region of the neural tube. The balance between the anterior and posterior growths of embryonic tissues reflects on the angle of curvature of the body axis.
Myelomeningocele is when the spinal cord protrudes from the spinal canal into a fluid-filled sac resulting from incomplete closure of the primary neural tube. Myeloschisis is when the incomplete closure of the primary neural plate results in a cleft spinal cord with the edges flush with the defect.
The use of VPA and MTX during pregnancy interferes with normal neural tube formation by blocking dihydrofolate reductase, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase, and several other key enzymes of the folate pathway [12].
While some of the studies were randomized trials, you can no longer conduct a true randomized design and withhold folic acid from women; it's simply not ethical knowing what we know about the preventive benefits of folic acid for neural tube defects.
The medical community needs to keep in mind that while the folic acid fortification of flour and other products has shown dramatic effects in the overall population, as the CDC report shows, it may not meet the needs of specific populations of women who are at a greater risk of having a baby with a neural tube defect.
OBJECTIVE: To determine prevalence of NTD in tertiary care center (KIMS Karad) from 1st July 2012 to 30th June 2013.To determine effectiveness of prenatal screening for neural tube defects.
HEALTH supplement manufacturers have been given the goahead by the EU to state on their packaging that folic acid can help to reduce the primary risk factor associated with the development of Neural Tube Defects (NTDs) like spina bifida and anencephaly.
'There's strong evidence that taking the supplement before and during pregnancy reduces the incidence of neural tube defects," says gynecologist Ellen Wilson.